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Table 4 Summary of characteristics and results at 6 and 12 months for the included randomised controlled trials

From: Primary health care-level interventions targeting health literacy and their effect on weight loss: a systematic review

Study (Year) Participants Interventions Follow-up (months) Weight*/BMI** Intervention group Control group Between-group significance
Pre mean Post mean Mean difference Pre mean Post mean Mean difference
Barclay 2008 [21] Location: UK Setting: PHC Allocated: Immediate entry (Intervention group): 19 Delayed entry: 18 (of these, 11 formed the Control group) 6 Wt 85.5 (range 58.4–128.8) NR −2.73 (3.15) 85.8 (range 73.1–96.8) NR −0.30 (1.36) p < 0.05
Risk factor: T2DM % dropout: 6.7 BMI 29.8 (range 23.1–43.0) NR −0.91 (1.01) 29.5 (range 22.8–35.5) NR 0.10 (0.47) p < 0.05
Sex: (a) Immediate entry (Intervention group): women 13, men 6 (b) Delayed entry (Control group): women 4, men 7 Comparison: Diet-PA vs. Usual Care (D-PA vs. UC)
Age, mean (range): (a) 62.3 (50–83) (b) 67.5 (56–85)
Bo 2007 [23] Location: Italy Setting: PHC Allocated: (a) 169 (b) 166 12 Wt 81.7 (14.9) 81.0 (15.7) −0.75 (95% CI −1.49, −0.003) 81.3 (13.5) 82.9 (14.0) 1.63 (95% CI 0.83, 2.42) p < 0.001
Risk factor: Metabolic syndrome % dropout: 0
Sex: (a) 99 women, 70 men (b) 96 women, 70 men Comparison: D-PA vs. UC
Age, mean (SD): (a) 55.7 (5.7) (b) 55.7 (5.6) BMI 29.7 (4.1) 29.4 (4.4) −0.29 (95% CI −0.56, −0.02) 29.8 (4.6) 30.4 (4.8) 0.61 (95% CI 0.31, 0.91) p < 0.001
Greaves 2008 [25] Location: UK Setting: PHC Allocated: (a) 72 (b) 69 6 Wt 91.6 (13.3) 91.3 (13.7) NR 94.4 (14.2) 92.6 (15.0) NR p < 0.05
Risk factor: T2DM % dropout: (a) 19.4 (b) 17.39
Sex: (a) 46 women, 26 men (b) 44 women, 25 men Comparison: D-PA vs. UC
Age, mean (SD): (a) 53.3 (12.3) (b) 54.5 (11.5)
Kulzer 2009 [26] Location: Germany Setting: PHC Allocated: (a) 91 (b) 91 12 Wt 92.1 (16.5) 88.3 (15.9) −3.8 (5.2) 93.6 (19.3) 92.2 (19.4) −1.4 (4.0) p = 0.001
Risk factor: T2DM % dropout: 9.3
Sex: 78 women, 104 men Comparison: D-PA vs. written information
Age, mean (SD): 56.3 (10.1) BMI 31.0 (4.7) 29.7 (4.7) −1.3 (1.7) 32.0 (5.7) 31.5 (5.8) −0.5 (1.4) p = 0.002
McConnon 2007 [28] Location: UK Setting: Community Allocated: (a) 111 (b) 110 12 Wt^ 98.9 (17.7) 93.6 (13.3) −1.29 (5.6) 97.9 (17.1) 95.6 (17.7) −1.9 (5.8) NS
Risk factor: Nil % dropout: (a) 51 (b) 30
Sex: 170 women, 51 men Comparison: Internet vs. UC
Age, mean: (a) 48.1 (b) 47.4 BMI^ 36.1 (5.8) 34.9 (4.6) −0.41 (2.0) 35.9 (5.1) 34.9 (5.0) −0.7 (2.1) NS
Tsai 2010 [30] Location: USA Setting: PHC Allocated: (a) 24 (b) 26 6 Wt 97.0 (SE 3.4) NR −4.4 (SE 0.6) 103.1 (SE 3.5) NR −0.9 (SE 0.6) p < 0.0001
Risk factor: Nil % dropout: (a) 8.4 (b) 3.9
Sex: 44 women, 6 men Comparison: brief behavioural counselling vs. no counselling 12 Wt 97.0 (SE 3.4) NR −2.3 (SE 0.9) 103.1 (SE 3.5) NR −1.1 (SE 0.8) NS
Age, mean (SE): (a) 51.3 (2.3) (b) 47.6 (2.5)
Whittemore 2009 [31] Location: USA Setting: PHC Allocated: (a) 31 (b) 27 6 Wt, % loss NR NR NR NR NR NR NS
Risk factor: T2DM % dropout: (a) 22.6 (b) 0 BMI NR NR NR NR NR NR NS
Sex: (a) 28 women, 3 men, (b) 24 women, 3 men Comparison: Enhanced standard care vs lifestyle intervention
Age, mean (SD): (a) 48.2 (12.4) (b) 43.2 (13.2)
  1. Wt: Weight.
  2. BMI: Body mass index.
  3. *kg.
  4. **kg/m2.
  5. ^Obtained by personal communication.
  6. Mean (SD) unless specified otherwise.