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Table 1 Summary of risk factors, method and time of data collection and category level in analysis

From: The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

Variable Method and time of data collection Category level in analysis
Pregnancy risk factors
 Maternal smoking during pregnancy Self-report at 26–28 weeks gestation No, Yes
 Gestational diabetes Extracted from maternity notes No, Yes
 Maternal booking BMI Weight at booking from maternity notes, height measured at 26–28 weeks gestation Underweight/normal (BMI ≤ 24.9)
Overweight (BMI 25–29.9)
Obese (BMI ≥ 30)
Postnatal risk factors
 Duration of any breastfeeding Self-report at 6 and 12 months Never, 1 day to <1 month, 1 to 4 months, 4+ months
 Age at weaning on to solids Self-report at 6 and 12 months ≥17 weeks, <17 weeks
 Infant’s total energy intake per day Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) at 12 months Kcals per day: continuous
 Infant’s total protein intake per day FFQ at 12 months Grams per day: continuous
 Caregivers feeding style Questionnaire at 24 months Authoritative, Authoritarian, Indulgent, Uninvolved
 Parenting style – Parental self-efficacy Questionnaire at 24 months High, lower scores (bottom quintile)
 Parenting style –Parental warmth Questionnaire at 24 months High, lower scores (bottom quintile)
 Parenting style – Parental hostility Questionnaire at 24 months Low, higher scores (top quintile)
 Infant TV viewing time Questionnaire at 24 months Hours per day: None, 0-1 hr, 1-2 hrs, 2+ hours
 Maternal TV viewing time Questionnaire at 24 months Hours per day: 0-2 hrs, 2-4 hrs, 4 + hrs
 Total infant sleep duration Questionnaire at 24 months Hours per day: <11 hrs, 11-12 hrs, 12-13 hrs, 13 + hrs
 Mothers physical activity Questionnaire at 18 months Sedentary (no activity), insufficiently active (<150 mins per week), sufficiently active (≥150 mins per week)