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Table 2 Early life risk factors overall and by ethnic group (White British and Pakistani), % or mean (SD)

From: The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

Risk factor Alla(N = 987) White British (N = 382) Pakistani (N = 474) Pb
Pregnancy risk factors
Smoked during pregnancy (%) N = 986 N = 382 N = 474 <0.001
  No 85.2 72.3 96.0  
  Yes 14.8 27.7 4.0  
Gestational diabetes (%) N = 967 N = 376 N = 461 0.001
  No 89.7 92.8 85.9  
  Yes 10.3 7.2 14.1  
Maternal booking BMI category (%) N = 949 N = 366 N = 458 0.003
  Underweight/normal 51.2 45.1 55.2  
  Overweight 30.1 30.9 29  
  Obese 18.7 24.0 15.7  
Postnatal risk factors
Duration of any breastfeeding (%) N = 987 N = 382 N = 474 <0.001
  Never 27.0 36.1 23.4  
  1 day to 1 month 26.3 29.6 26.2  
  1 to 4 months 18.5 13.9 21.7  
  4+ months 28.2 20.4 28.7  
Weaned <17 weeks (%) N = 924 N = 363 N = 440 <0.001
  No 73.8 63.6 81.4  
  Yes 26.2 36.4 18.6  
Daily protein intake, mean (SD) N = 866 N = 330 N = 417 0.001
  g per day 38.0 (17.2) 40.9 (17.6) 36.5 (17.0)  
Daily total energy intake, mean (SD) N = 866 N = 330 N = 417 0.003
  Kcal per day 1105 (433) 1169 (445) 1075 (412)  
Caregivers feeding style (%) N = 904 N = 343 N = 443 <0.001
  Authoritative 14.7 15.2 14.4  
  Authoritarian 32.4 21.3 39.3  
  Indulgent 34.8 48.1 26.0  
  Uninvolved 18.0 15.5 20.3  
Parental self-efficacy (%) N = 899 N = 341 N = 440 0.49
  High 80.0 80.6 78.6  
  Lower scores (bottom quintile) 20.0 19.4 21.4  
Parental warmth (%) N = 897 N = 341 N = 439 0.001
  High 73.4 79.8 69.5  
  Lower scores (bottom quintile) 26.6 20.2 30.5  
Hostile parenting (%) N = 896 N = 341 N = 439 0.42
  Low 76.8 75.7 78.1  
  Higher scores (top quintile) 23.2 24.3 21.9  
Infant TV viewing time (%) N = 901 N = 340 N = 443 <0.001
  None 7.2 6.5 8.1  
  0-1 hour 37.6 44.1 34.1  
  1-2 hours 27.0 29.4 23.7  
  2-3 hours 28.2 20.0 34.1  
Maternal TV viewing time (%) N = 904 N = 343 N = 443 <0.001
  0-2 hours 43.1 33.5 49.4  
  2-4 hours 41.9 50.4 36.6  
   > 4 hours 14.9 16.0 14.0  
Infant sleep duration (%) N = 898 N = 337 N = 443 0.23
   < 11 hours 19.3 17.2 19.0  
  11-12 hours 27.6 30.6 25.5  
  12-13 hours 30.2 32.3 30.7  
  13+ hours 22.9 19.9 24.8  
Maternal activity level (%) N = 902 N = 345 N = 439 <0.001
  Sedentary 15.9 9.0 20.7  
  Insufficiently active 44.2 33.9 53.1  
  Sufficiently active 39.9 57.1 26.2  
  1. aThis includes 382 White British participants, 474 Pakistani participants and 131 participants of “Other” ethnicities.
  2. bDifference between White British and Pakistani (chi squared test or t-test as appropriate).