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Table 4 Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for infant overweight for each early life risk factors from Poisson regression models

From: The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

Risk factor Category Model 1a Model 2b Model 3c
RR 95% CI RR 95% CI RR 95% CI
Pregnancy risk factors
 Smoked during pregnancy No 1 - 1 - 1 -
Yes 1.25 (0.99, 1.60) 1.17 (0.90, 1.52) 1.36 (1.05, 1.76)
 Gestational diabetes No 1 - 1 - 1 -
Yes 0.98 (0.72, 1.35) 0.96 (0.69, 1.32) 0.98 (0.71, 1.35)
 Maternal booking BMI Underweight normal 1 - 1 - 1 -
Overweight 1.36 (1.09, 1.71) 1.33 (1.06, 1.67) 1.28 (1.02, 1.61)
Obese 1.65 (1.30, 2.09) 1.55 (1.21, 1.99) 1.44 (1.11, 1.86)
Postnatal risk factors
 Duration of any breastfeeding Never 1 - 1 - 1 -
1 day to 1 month 1.40 (1.09, 1.81) 1.42 (1.11, 1.84) 1.38 (1.07, 1.79)
1 to 4 months 1.10 (0.81, 1.49) 1.21 (0.88, 1.65) 1.16 (0.85, 1.56)
4+ months 1.05 (0.80, 1.39) 1.07 (0.80, 1.42) 1.08 (0.82, 1.44)
 Weaned <17 weeks No 1 - 1 - 1 -
Yes 1.04 (0.83, 1.29) 0.96 (0.77, 1.20) 0.86 (0.68, 1.08)
 Daily protein intake Per 1SD increase 1.08 (0.99, 1.18) 1.05 (0.95, 1.15) 1.09 (0.90, 1.30)
 Daily total energy intake Per 1SD increase 1.07 (0.97, 1.18) 1.04 (0.94, 1.15) 0.96 (0.79, 1.16)
 Caregivers feeding style Authoritative 1 - 1 - 1 -
Authoritarian 0.83 (0.58, 1.19) 0.87 (0.61, 1.24) 0.85 (0.60, 1.22)
Indulgent 1.42 (1.03, 1.94) 1.34 (0.97, 1.84) 1.29 (0.94, 1.78)
Uninvolved 1.06 (0.73, 1.53) 1.03 (0.71, 1.49) 1.07 (0.74, 1.55)
 Parental self-efficacy High 1 - 1 - 1 -
Lower scores (bottom quintile) 0.83 (0.63, 1.09) 0.79 (0.61, 1.03) 0.76 (0.58, 1.00)
 Parental warmth High 1 - 1 - 1 -
Lower scores (bottom quintile) 1.22 (0.98, 1.51) 1.29 (1.04, 1.60) 1.33 (1.07, 1.65)
 Hostile parenting Low 1 - 1 - 1 -
Higher scores (top quintile) 1.04 (0.83, 1.31) 1.04 (0.83, 1.31) 1.16 (0.91, 1.48)
 Infant TV viewing time None 1 - 1 - 1 -
0-1 hour 1.03 (0.68, 1.56) 0.99 (0.65, 1.50) 1.04 (0.69, 1.56)
1-2 hours 1.08 (0.71, 1.65) 1.08 (0.70, 1.64) 1.19 (0.78, 1.80)
>2 hours 0.98 (0.64, 1.50) 1.03 (0.67, 1.58) 1.18 (0.78, 1.80)
 Maternal TV viewing time 0-2 hours 1 - 1 - 1 -
2-4 hours 1.00 (0.81, 1.23) 0.96 (0.78, 1.17) 0.88 (0.71, 1.09)
>4 hours 0.61 (0.42, 0.90) 0.60 (0.41, 0.88) 0.54 (0.37, 0.79)
 Infant sleep duration <11 hours 1.09 (0.82, 1.45) 1.17 (0.87, 1.56) 1.18 (0.88, 1.56)
11-12 hours 1.05 (0.80, 1.37) 1.04 (0.80, 1.35) 1.00 (0.77, 1.30)
12-13 hours 1 - 1 - 1 -
13+ hours 1.05 (0.79, 1.38) 1.12 (0.85, 1.47) 1.13 (0.86, 1.49)
 Maternal activity level Sedentary 1 - 1 - 1 -
Insufficiently active 0.96 (0.72, 1.30) 0.93 (0.69, 1.25) 0.99 (0.74, 1.33)
Sufficiently active 1.13 (0.84, 1.51) 0.98 (0.73, 1.32) 1.04 (0.77, 1.40)
  1. aModel 1: unadjusted.
  2. bModel 2: pregnancy risk factors adjusted for ethnicity, infant sex, maternal age, maternal highest educational qualification, parity. Postnatal risk factors additionally adjusted for birthweight, gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery.
  3. cModel 3: adjusted for all risk factors and ethnicity, infant sex, maternal age, maternal highest educational qualification, parity, birthweight, gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery.