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Table 1 Participant characteristics

From: Associations of total and abdominal adiposity with risk marker patterns in children at high-risk for cardiovascular disease

  Overall Non-obese (BMI < 95%) Obese (BMI ≥ 95%) Non-abdominally obese (WC < 90%) Abdominally obese (WC ≥ 90%)
% (n) 100 (107) 57 (61) 43 (46) 67 (72) 33 (35)
Age, y (sd) 13.3 (2.7) 13.5 (2.9) 13.0 (2.5) 13.7 (3.0) 12.4 (2.2)*
Race/ethnicity      
% White (n) 82 (88) 90 (55) 72 (33)* 85 (61) 77 (27)
% Black (n) 5.6 (6) 3.3 (2) 8.7 (4) 5.6 (4) 5.7 (2)
% Other racial group (n) 12.1 (13) 6.6 (4) 19.6 (9)* 9.7 (7) 17.1 (6)*
% Exposed to tobacco smoke (n) 19 (20) 8 (5) 33 (15)* 13 (9) 31 (11)*
% Family history of CHD (n) 51 (55) 51 (31) 52 (24) 53 (38) 49 (17)
Screen time, hours^(sd) 2.7 (2.3) 2.4 (1.7) 3.1 (2.9) 2.8 (2.5) 2.5 (1.9)
BMI percentile (n) 80 (23) 68 (24) 97 (1)* 72 (24) 97 (2)*
BMI, kg/m 2 (sd) 25 (6) 21 (3) 30 (5)* 22 (4) 30 (6)*
WC percentile (n) 87 (16) 54 (23) 91 (6)* 58 (23) 95 (0)*
WC, cm (sd) 71 (26) 77 (11) 99 (14)* 80 (13) 100 (15)*
Total cholesterol, mg/dL^ (sd) 214 (50) 220 (52) 205 (47) 218 (52) 205 (47)
% High, ≥200 mg/dL (n) 58 (62) 59 (36) 57 (26) 58 (42) 57 (20)
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL^ (sd) 137 (50) 145 (50) 127 (49)* 143 (50.0) 126 (48)
% High, ≥ 130 mg/dL (n) 46.7 (50) 47.5 (29) 45.7 (29) 50.0 (36) 40.0 (14)
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL^ (sd) 53 (14) 57 (12) 48 (15)* 54 (13) 50 (17)
% Low, < 50 mg/dL (n) 19 (18) 7 (4) 33 (15)* 13 (9) 29 (10)*
Triglycerides, mg/dL^ (sd) 118 (75) 93 (57) 152 (83)* 105 (69) 147 (80)*
% High, ≥ 130 mg/dL (n) 34 (36) 16 (10) 57 (26)* 26 (19) 49 (17)*
VLDL cholesterol, mg/dL^ (sd) 24 (15) 19 (11) 30 (17) 21 (14) 29 (17)
Lp(a)^, mmol/L (sd) 39 (43) 39 (43) 39 (43) 40 (45) 37 (39)
hs-CRP, mg/L^ (sd) 0.1 (0.2) 0.1 (0.1) 0.2 (0.2)* 0.1 (0.2) 0.2 (0.2)*
ICAM-1, ng/L^ (sd) 295 (86) 282 (95) 312 (71)* 278 (90) 331 (65)*
P-selectin, ng/L^ (sd) 136 (46) 129 (46) 145 (46) 131 (46) 146 (46)
TNF alpha, pg/L^ (sd) 2140 (590) 2041 (501) 2271 (675) 2001 (499) 2425 (665)*
SBP, mmHg (sd) 112 (11) 111 (10) 114 (13) 112 (11) 113 (13)
% SBP > 95 th percentile (n) 14 (15) 12 (7) 17 (8) 13 (9) 17 (6)
DBP, mmHg (sd) 63 (7) 62 (8) 64 (6) 63 (8) 63 (6)
% DBP > 95 th percentile (n) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  1. Caption: All continuous variables are presented as mean (standard deviation [sd]). All categorical variables and percentiles are presented as % (n). ^variables were log-transformed prior to testing for differences. *p value for comparisons < 0.05. Other racial groups were defined as Asian, Hispanic, Pacific Islander, and Native American.