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Table 1 Weighted percentages for prevalence of potential covariates and associations with overweight at 7-years

From: Parental employment during early childhood and overweight at 7-years: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

  Percent (n) Total Percent (n) Not overweight at 7 years Percent (n) Overweight at 7 years
     Chi-square test
Birthweight    
 Normal/high birthweight (≥2500 g) 94.2 (9784) 93.9 (7775) 95.3 (2009)
 Low birthweight (<2500 g) 5.8 (596) 6.1 (499) 4.7 (97)
     p < 0.05
Pre-term birth    
 Normal (≥37 weeks) 93.1 (9708) 93.2 (7738) 93.0 (1970)
 Pre-term (<37 weeks) 6.9 (695) 6.8 (552) 7.1 (143)
     p = 0.77
Maternal age at child’s birth    
 14–19 years 7.2 (647) 7.2 (515) 7.1 (132)
 20–29 years 44.6 (4575) 44.7 (3634) 44.5 (941)
 30–39 years 45.9 (4994) 46.0 (3996) 45.7 (998)
 40+ years 2.2 (258) 2.1 (200) 2.8 (58)
     p = 0.49
Maternal ethnicity    
 White 88.0 (9057) 88.4 (7234) 86.3 (1823)
 Non-white 12.0 (1393) 11.6 (1091) 13.7 (302)
     p < 0.05
Maternal pre-pregnancy bodysize    
 Normal / underweight 71.0 (6964) 75.0 (5871) 54.7 (1093)
 Overweight 29.0 (2988) 25.0 (2071) 45.3 (917)
     p < 0.001
Family structure (9-months–7-years)    
 Continuous couple families 72.1 (7728) 73.1 (6227) 67.9 (1501)
 Couple families for 1–3 sweeps 20.9 (2042) 20.2 (1594) 23.4 (448)
 Continuous lone-parent families 7.1 (704) 6.7 (524) 8.8 (180)
     p < 0.001
Maternal highest qualification (9-months)a    
 Degree 17.9 (2028) 19.1 (1729) 12.8 (299)
 Diploma 9.4 (1026) 9.5 (820) 9.1 (206)
 A/AS/S Levels 9.8 (1088) 10.1 (887) 8.8 (201)
 O Levels/GCSEs A-C 35.7 (3592) 35.2 (2797) 37.7 (795)
 O Levels/GCSEs D-G 10.9 (1057) 10.5 (817) 12.6 (240)
 Other academic qualification 2.0 (218) 1.8 (171) 2.5 (47)
 None of these qualifications 14.3 (1456) 13.8 (1117) 16.6 (339)
     p < 0.001
Breastfeeding duration    
 Never 31.2 (3161) 30.4 (2434) 34.6 (727)
 Up to 4 months 40.8 (4407) 40.7 (3515) 41.0 (892)
 Greater than 4 months 28.0 (2906) 28.9 (2396) 24.4 (510)
     p < 0.001
Introduced to solids before 4-months of age    
 No 64.0 (6753) 64.9 (5462) 60.4 (1291)
 Yes 36.0 (3719) 35.1 (2881) 39.6 (838)
     p < 0.001
Maternal smoking during pregnancy    
 No 65.6 (7006) 66.6 (5676) 61.7 (1330)
 Yes 34.4 (3439) 33.4 (2645) 38.3 (794)
   p < 0.001
Number of children in household at first sweep (9-months)    
 1 42.0 (4365) 42.3 (3484) 40.8 (881)
 2 36.6 (3755) 36.7 (2994) 36.3 (761)
 3 14.5 (1592) 14.4 (1275) 15.2 (317)
 4+ 6.9 (762) 6.7 (592) 7.7 (170)
     p = 0.29
  1. aMaternal highest academic qualification achieved: Ranging from highest (degree) to lowest (General Certificate of Education (GCE) Ordinary (O) Levels / General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) grades D-G), plus categories for those with no qualifications or others not listed
  2. Missing data for covariates: birthweight 94; gestation 71; maternal age at birth of child 0; maternal ethnicity 24; pre-pregnancy weight 522; family structure 0; maternal education 9; breastfeeding 0; solids 2; smoking 29; children in household 9-months 0