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Table 2 Linear regression models for contribution of measured weight to variation in the discrepancy between self-report and measured BMI by country (sexes combined)a,b

From: Does BMI generated by self-reported height and weight measure up in older adults from middle-income countries? Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

Variable Coefficients (SE) β p Model r2 and p
BMI Discrepancy (SR BMI – measured BMI)
China (N = 13,384)     0.043/<0.001***
 Constant 5.423 (0.529)   <0.001  
 Age 0.009 (0.004) 0.021 =0.028  
 Sex −0.722 (0.126) −0.071 <0.001  
Education level: Completed less than primary 0.241 (0.143) 0.018 =0.091  
 Completed primary 0.143 (0.142) 0.011 =0.314  
 Completed secondary 0.294 (0.147) 0.024 =0.045  
 Completed high school 0.425 (0.165) 0.029 =0.010  
 Completed college/university/post-grad 0.356 (0.231) 0.015 =0.124  
 Income 0.485 (0.110) 0.042 <0.001  
 Total Physical Activity Level −0.031 (0.014) −0.020 =0.024  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 0.082 (0.217) 0.003 =0.750  
 Occasionally −0.092 (0.148) −0.006 =0.533  
 Moderate/heavy drinker 0.034 (0.139) 0.002 =0.807  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.467 (0.210) −0.021 =0.026  
 Occasionally −0.431 (0.285) −0.013 =0.131  
 Daily −0.015 (0.135) −0.001 =0.911  
Self-rated health: Bad −0.229 (0.332) −0.017 =0.490  
 Moderate −0.041 (0.324) −0.004 =0.898  
 Good −0.069 (0.328) −0.006 =0.832  
 Very good −0.096 (0.383) −0.004 =0.803  
 Measured Weight −0.095 (0.004) −0.224 <0.001  
India (N = 4,328)     0.015/<0.001***
 Constant 13.074 (2.485)   <0.001  
 Age 0.035 (0.018) 0.035 =0.057  
 Sex −0.568 (0.638) −0.018 =0.373  
Education Level: Completed less than primary −2.225 (0.813) −0.045 =0.006  
 Completed primary −2.607 (0.746) −0.060 <0.001  
 Completed secondary −3.188 (0.809) −0.070 <0.001  
 Completed high school −3.055 (0.890) −0.064 =0.001  
 Completed college/university/post-grad −3.437 (1.082) −0.059 =0.002  
 Income −0.113 (0.595) −0.004 =0.849  
 Total Physical Activity Level −0.036 (0.071) −0.008 =0.618  
Drinking: Do not currently drink −2.134 (1.151) −0.029 =0.064  
 Occasionally −0.643 (0.960) −0.011 =0.503  
 Moderate/heavy drinker −0.935 (1.138) −0.013 =0.412  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.612 (1.298) −0.008 =0.637  
 Occasionally −0.548 (1.524) −0.006 =0.719  
 Daily −0.175 (0.592) −0.005 =0.768  
Self-rated health: Bad −1.136 (1.889) −0.026 =0.548  
 Moderate 0.895 (1.835) 0.028 =0.626  
 Good 0.539 (1.859) 0.016 =0.772  
 Very good 0.700 (2.197) 0.009 =0.750  
 Measured Weight −0.173 (0.021) −0.139 <0.001  
Mexico (N = 718)     0.010/=0.006**
 Constant 4.545 (2.680)   =0.090  
 Age −0.021 (0.014) −0.068 =0.133  
 Sex −0.857 (0.405) −0.100 =0.035  
Education Level: Completed less than primary −0.711 (0.609) −0.077 =0.243  
 Completed primary −0.831 (0.641) −0.085 =0.195  
 Completed secondary −0.077 (0.740) −0.006 =0.917  
 Completed high school −1.319 (0.988) −0.063 =0.182  
 Completed college/university/post-grad 0.271 (0.737) 0.023 =0.713  
 Income 0.452 (0.463) 0.041 =0.329  
 Total Physical Activity Level −0.055 (0.044) −0.047 =0.218  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 0.834 (0.441) 0.082 =0.059  
 Occasionally −0.646 (0.428) −0.068 =0.132  
 Moderate/heavy drinker −1.386 (0.825) −0.069 =0.093  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke 0.235 (0.421) 0.024 =0.577  
 Occasionally −0.082 (0.654) −0.005 =0.900  
 Daily −0.023 (0.497) −0.002 =0.963  
Self-rated health: Bad −0.017 (2.232) −0.001 =0.994  
 Moderate −0.531 (2.183) −0.062 =0.808  
 Good −0.212 (2.185) −0.024 =0.923  
 Very good −0.681 (2.311) −0.032 =0.768  
 Measured Weight −0.032 (0.012) −0.111 =0.006  
Russia (N = 3,793)     0.042/<0.001***
 Constant 4.223 (0.992)   <0.001  
 Age −0.004 (0.006) −0.013 =0.524  
 Sex −0.266 (0.156) −0.035 =0.088  
Education Level: Completed less than primary −1.368 (0.799) −0.045 =0.087  
 Completed primary −1.301 (0.681) −0.089 =0.056  
 Completed secondary −1.182 (0.660) −0.122 =0.073  
 Completed high school −1.310 (0.656) −0.177 =0.046  
 Completed college/university/post-grad −1.326 (0.667) −0.145 =0.047  
 Income 0.095 (0.167) 0.010 =0.570  
 Total Physical Activity Level 0.032 (0.018) 0.029 =0.085  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 0.014 (0.194) 0.001 =0.943  
 Occasionally −0.144 (0.153) −0.019 =0.348  
 Moderate/heavy drinker −0.146 (0.282) −0.010 =0.604  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.266 (0.208) −0.023 =0.202  
 Occasionally 0.435 (0.449) 0.016 =0.333  
 Daily 0.009 (0.197) 0.001 =0.965  
Self-rated health: Bad 1.029 (0.509) 0.116 =0.044  
 Moderate 1.095 (0.504) 0.145 =0.030  
 Good 0.954 (0.529) 0.094 =0.071  
 Very good 0.566 (0.826) 0.014 =0.494  
 Measured Weight −0.052 (0.004) −0.209 <0.001  
South Africa (N = 790)     0.018/<0.001***
 Constant 3.822 (5.369)   =0.477  
 Age 0.025 (0.046) 0.021 =0.585  
 Sex −0.686 (1.050) −0.025 =0.514  
Education Level: Completed less than primary 2.122 (1.653) 0.068 =0.200  
 Completed primary 2.120 (1.722) 0.064 =0.219  
 Completed secondary 1.967 (1.897) 0.057 =0.300  
 Completed high school 0.468 (2.149) 0.012 =0.828  
 Completed college/university/post-grad 2.059 (2.380) 0.047 =0.387  
 Income −1.173 (1.144) −0.045 =0.306  
 Total Physical Activity Level 0.170 (0.159) 0.040 =0.286  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 2.116 (7.832) 0.010 =0.787  
 Occasionally 0.896 (1.490) 0.024 =0.548  
 Moderate/heavy drinker 1.227 (1.757) 0.028 =0.485  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.311 (1.967) −0.006 =0.874  
 Occasionally −0.356 (2.856) −0.005 =0.901  
 Daily −2.014 (1.374) −0.060 =0.143  
Self-rated health: Bad 1.244 (3.886) 0.038 =0.749  
 Moderate 2.428 (3.802) 0.090 =0.523  
 Good 3.014 (3.855) 0.102 =0.435  
 Very good 5.418 (4.281) 0.098 =0.206  
 Measured Weight −0.095 (0.025) −0.143 <0.001  
  1. aComparisons are statistically significant at: * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001
  2. bReference groups used in the creation of dummy codes for each categorical variable:
  3. (i) Education levels = no formal education
  4. (ii) Drinking levels = never consumed alcohol
  5. (iii) Smoking levels = never used tobacco
  6. (iv) Self-rated health = very bad