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Table 3 Linear regression models for contribution of age to variation in the discrepancy between self-report and measured BMI by country (sexes combined)a,b

From: Does BMI generated by self-reported height and weight measure up in older adults from middle-income countries? Results from the study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE)

Variable Coefficients (SE) β p Model r2 and p
BMI Discrepancy (SR BMI – measured BMI)
China (N = 13,384)     0.001/<0.001***
 Constant −0.632 (0.475)   =0.184  
 Sex −0.036 (0.125) −0.004 =0.771  
Education Level: Completed less than primary 0.096 (0.146) 0.007 =0.511  
 Completed primary −0.131 (0.145) −0.010 =0.368  
 Completed secondary −0.150 (0.149) −0.012 =0.314  
 Completed high school 0.009 (0.168) 0.001 =0.955  
 Completed college/university/post-grad −0.112 (0.235) −0.005 =0.634  
 Income 0.136 (0.111) 0.012 =0.223  
 Total Physical Activity Level −0.023 (0.014) −0.015 =0.102  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 0.101 (0.222) 0.004 =0.650  
 Occasionally −0.068 (0.151) −0.004 =0.651  
 Moderate/heavy drinker 0.131 (0.142) 0.009 =0.355  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.483 (0.215) −0.022 =0.025  
 Occasionally −0.369 (0.291) −0.012 =0.205  
 Daily 0.173 (0.137) 0.015 =0.209  
Self-rated health: Bad −0.391 (0.339) −0.029 =0.249  
 Moderate −0.239 (0.331) −0.023 =0.470  
 Good −0.209 (0.335) −0.019 =0.533  
 Very good −0.162 (0.391) −0.007 =0.679  
 Age 0.015 (0.004) 0.036 <0.001  
India (N = 4,328)     0.001/0.072
 Constant 4.750 (2.286)   =0.038  
 Sex 0.673 (0.624) 0.021 =0.281  
Education Level: Completed less than primary −2.193 (0.819) −0.044 =0.007  
 Completed primary −2.672 (0.752) −0.062 <0.001  
 Completed secondary −3.449 (0.814) −0.076 <0.001  
 Completed high school −3.363 (0.896) −0.070 <0.001  
 Completed college/university/post-grad −4.199 (1.086) −0.072 <0.001  
 Income −1.269 (0.582) −0.040 =0.029  
 Total Physical Activity Level −0.053 (0.072) −0.012 =0.463  
Drinking: Do not currently drink −2.035 (1.160) −0.028 =0.079  
 Occasionally −0.678 (0.968) −0.011 =0.483  
 Moderate/heavy drinker −0.983 (1.147) −0.014 =0.391  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.387 (1.307) −0.005 =0.767  
 Occasionally −0.446 (1.563) −0.005 =0.771  
 Daily 0.183 (0.595) 0.006 =0.759  
Self-rated health: Bad −0.985 (1.903) −0.022 =0.605  
 Moderate 0.557 (1.849) 0.017 =0.763  
 Good 0.181 (1.873) 0.005 =0.923  
 Very good 0.029 (2.213) <0.001 =0.989  
 Age 0.033 (0.018) 0.034 =0.072  
Mexico (N = 718)     0.002/=0.264
 Constant 1.752 (2.489)   =0.482  
 Sex −0.583 (0.394) −0.068 =0.139  
Education Level: Completed less than primary −0.841 (0.610) −0.091 =0.168  
 Completed primary −0.903 (0.643) −0.092 =0.160  
 Completed secondary −0.065 (0.744) −0.005 =0.930  
 Completed high school −1.351 (0.992) −0.065 =0.174  
 Completed college/university/post-grad 0.250 (0.740) 0.021 =0.763  
 Income 0.253 (0.459) 0.023 =0.582  
 Total Physical Activity Level −0.046 (0.044) −0.040 =0.306  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 0.749 (0.442) 0.074 =0.090  
 Occasionally −0.654 (0.430) −0.069 =0.129  
 Moderate/heavy drinker −1.257 (0.827) −0.062 =0.129  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke 0.187 (0.422) 0.019 =0.658  
 Occasionally −0.198 (0.655) −0.012 =0.763  
 Daily 0.006 (0.499) 0.001 =0.990  
Self-rated health: Bad 0.025 (2.242) 0.002 =0.991  
 Moderate −0.503 (2.193) −0.058 =0.819  
 Good −0.171 (2.195) −0.019 =0.938  
 Very good −0.607 (2.321) −0.028 =0.794  
 Age −0.015 (0.013) −0.047 =0.264  
Russia (N = 3,793)     <0.001/0.980
 Constant −0.477 (0.942)   =0.612  
 Sex 0.006 (0.158) 0.001 =0.972  
Education Level: Completed less than primary −1.166 (0.816) −0.039 =0.153  
 Completed primary −1.154 (0.696) −0.079 =0.097  
 Completed secondary −1.049 (0.674) −0.108 =0.120  
 Completed high school −1.280 (0.670) −0.173 =0.056  
 Completed college/university/post-grad −1.233 (0.681) −0.135 =0.070  
 Income −0.064 (0.170) −0.007 =0.704  
 Total Physical Activity Level 0.033 (0.019) 0.031 =0.079  
Drinking: Do not currently drink −0.004 (0.198) <0.001 =0.985  
 Occasionally −0.146 (0.157) −0.020 =0.352  
 Moderate/heavy drinker −0.130 (0.288) −0.009 =0.652  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.264 (0.213) −0.023 =0.214  
 Occasionally 0.556 (0.459) 0.020 =0.225  
 Daily 0.214 (0.201) 0.022 =0.286  
Self-rated health: Bad 1.169 (0.520) 0.132 =0.025  
 Moderate 1.265 (0.515) 0.168 =0.014  
 Good 1.309 (0.539) 0.129 =0.015  
 Very good 1.231 (0.842) 0.030 =0.144  
 Age <0.001 (0.006) −0.001 =0.980  
South Africa (N = 790)     0.001/=0.411
 Constant −2.883 (5.114)   =0.573  
 Sex −0.673 (1.059) −0.025 =0.526  
Education Level: Completed less than primary 1.763 (1.665) 0.056 =0.290  
 Completed primary 1.687 (1.733) 0.051 =0.331  
 Completed secondary 1.502 (1.909) 0.043 =0.432  
 Completed high school 0.046 (2.164) 0.001 =0.983  
 Completed college/university/post-grad 1.257 (2.391) 0.029 =0.559  
 Income −1.857 (1.139) −0.071 =0.103  
 Total Physical Activity Level 0.116 (0.160) 0.027 =0.467  
Drinking: Do not currently drink 0.265 (7.884) 0.001 =0.973  
 Occasionally 1.107 (1.502) 0.030 =0.461  
 Moderate/heavy drinker 1.876 (1.764) 0.043 =0.288  
Smoking: Do not currently smoke −0.117 (1.983) −0.002 =0.953  
 Occasionally −0.170 (2.880) −0.002 =0.953  
 Daily −1.406 (1.377) −0.042 =0.308  
Self-rated health: Bad 0.622 (3.916) 0.019 =0.874  
 Moderate 1.618 (3.829) 0.060 =0.673  
 Good 2.597 (3.997) 0.088 =0.504  
 Very good 5.427 (4.318) 0.098 =0.209  
 Age 0.038 (0.04) 0.032 =0.411  
  1. aComparisons are statistically significant at: * = p < 0.05, ** = p < 0.01, *** = p < 0.001
  2. bReference groups used in the creation of dummy codes for each categorical variable:
  3. (i) Education levels = no formal education
  4. (ii) Drinking levels = never consumed alcohol
  5. (iii) Smoking levels = never used tobacco
  6. (iv) Self-rated health = very bad