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Table 3 Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis examining the relationship between ownership of different household assets and BMI

From: Recreation, transportation or labour saving? Examining the association between household asset ownership and body mass index among Ghanaian women

  Odds ratio
Type of household asset Model 1 Model 2
Recreation Overweight Obese Overweight Obese
 Television [No] 1.27+ 1.39   
 Computer [No] 1.35+ 1.51   
 DVD/VCD [No] 0.98 1.59**   
Transportation     
 Car/truck [No] 0.64** 0.80   
 Motorcycle/scooter [No] 2.05*** 1.23   
 Bicycle [No] 1.10 0.98   
Labour saving     
 Refrigerator [No] 1.33* 1.19   
 Washing machine [No] 1.01 1.75   
Household asset index    1.15*** 1.25***
Control variables     
 Frequency of watching television [Not at all]     
  Less than once a week 1.19 1.65+ 1.24 1.78*
  At least once a week 1.12 1.51+ 1.15 1.60*
  Almost every day 1.29 2.07*** 1.35* 2.33***
 Number of physical activity days/week [0]     
  1–2 1.10 0.84 1.10 0.84
  3–4 0.92 0.77 0.92 0.77
  5–7 1.04 0.75 1.04 0.74
 Age [15–19]     
  20–24 1.69** 1.47 1.71** 1.47
  25–29 3.66*** 4.42*** 3.73*** 4.47***
  30–34 4.51*** 8.63*** 4.60*** 8.64***
  35–39 4.21*** 14.91*** 4.39*** 14.68***
  40–44 5.61*** 22.89*** 5.69*** 22.09***
  45–49 4.52*** 17.50*** 4.50*** 17.08***
 Education [No education]     
  Primary 1.43* 1.79* 1.45* 1.78*
  Middle/Junior High School 1.38* 1.63* 1.39* 1.65*
  Secondary/Senior High School 1.46+ 1.59+ 1.46+ 1.60+
  Higher 1.73* 1.62 1.72* 1.72
 Current marital status [Never married]     
  In union 1.03 1.77* 1.02 1.82**
  Formerly in union 1.25 2.20** 1.23 2.28**
 Region [Greater Accra]     
  Western 1.18 0.68+ 1.23 0.67+
  Central 1.38 0.67 1.44+ 0.68
  Volta 1.14 1.00 1.19 0.93
  Eastern 1.30 0.93 1.32 0.90
  Ashanti 0.99 0.59** 1.04 0.59**
  Brong Ahafo 0.63** 0.33*** 0.68* 0.30
  Northern 0.45*** 0.23*** 0.54** 0.20***
  Upper east 0.53* 0.41* 0.59* 0.36*
  Upper west 0.42*** 0.19*** 0.50*** 0.17***
 Place of residence [Rural]     
  Urban 1.85*** 2.09*** 1.89*** 2.20***
 Parity 1.04 0.99 1.04 0.99
  1. Source of data: Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008
  2. [ ] Reference Category
  3. +P < 0.10,*P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001