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Table 4 Self-evaluation, emotional distress, and protective factors in patients opting for non-surgical and surgical obesity treatment

From: A comparison of behavioral and psychological characteristics of patients opting for surgical and conservative treatment for morbid obesity

    Non-surgical n = 261 Bariatric surgery n = 301 Adjusted for gender/ age/BMI   
Range α Mean (SD) Mean (SD) F p ηp2
Self-esteem 1–4 0.81 2.7 (0.7) 2.7 (0.7) 0.54 0.46  
Body satisfaction 1–5 0.74 2.4 (0.5) 2.6 (0.5) 1.76 0.18  
Appearance importance 1–5 0.82 3.4 (0.7) 3.4 (0.8) 2.68 0.10  
Mental health
 - Anxiety 0–20   7.2 (4.1) 7.0 (4.2) 0.78 0.38  
 - Depression 0–20   4.8 (3.2) 5.4 (3.8) 4.45 <0.05 0.008
Binge eating 1–3   1.8 (0.9) 1.7 (0.8) 7.69 <0.01 0.015
Stressful life events
 -frequency 0–13   3.3 (2.2) 3.8 (2.8) 3.25 0.07  
 -impact 1–4   3.2 (0.7) 3.3 (0.7) 0.59 0.44  
 -coping 1–3   1.9 (0.6) 2.0 (0.6) 1.41 0.24  
Emotion regulation
 - reappraisal 1–7 0.77 4.1 (0.9) 4.0 (0.9) 1.48 0.22  
 - suppression 1–7 79 3.8 (1.1) 3.8 (1.1) 0.34 0.56  
Resilience factors
 - Total 1–5 0.91 3.6 (0.6) 3.7 (0.6) 3.00 0.08  
 - Personal strength 1–5 0.87 3.4 (0.8) 3.5 (0.8) 8.40 <0.01 0.015
 - Structural style 1–5 0.49 3.2 (0.8) 3.4 (0.8) 10.45 <0.001 0.019
 - Social competence 1–5 0.74 3.6 (0.7) 3.7 (0.8) 0.99 0.32  
 - Family cohesion 1–5 0.84 3.7 (0.8) 3.6 (1.0) 0.18 0.67  
 - Social resources 1–5 0.80 4.1 (0.7) 4.1 (0.8) 0.01 0.95  
Relationship satisfactiona 1–7 0.85 5.6 (1.1) 5.6 (1.1) 0.07 0.79  
  1. Note: α Cronbach’s alpha, SD standard deviation; Estimate of effect size: ηp2 = Partial Eta-squared. aRelationship Satisfaction Scale was only completed by respondents who were in a relationship (n = 190/165)