Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics of a sample of individuals in rural south India by BMI category

From: Factors associated with BMI, underweight, overweight, and obesity among adults in a population of rural south India: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, n = 84) Normal (n = 300) Overweight (BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m2 and <25 kg/m2, n = 118) Obesity class I (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and < 30 kg/m2, n = 132) Obesity class II (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 26) p-value for trend
Descriptive characteristics
Age 49.6 ± 17.2 46.8 ± 14.8 47.4 ± 13.5 45.1 ± 11.7 43.6 ± 11.5 0.05
Women (%) 51.7 53.8 52.5 58.3 76.9 0.145
Waist to hip ratio 0.84 ± 0.072 0.87 ± 0.075 0.91 ± 0.07 0.92 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.08 <0.001
Hypertension (%) 19.4 % 25.8 40.7 38.9 50 <0.001
Rurality Index 0.04 ± 1.1 −0.37 ± 1.3 −0.86 ± 1.32 −1.0 ± 1.28 −1.95 ± 1.0 <0.001
Current tobacco consumer (%) 50 40.5 34.7 31.5 7.7 <0.001
Socioeconomic and education characteristics
Wealth index 9.7 ± 3.9 10.7 ± 4.6 11.3 ± 4.8 12.3 ± 5.0 13.5 ± 5.6 <0.001
Vehicle ownership (%) 17.6 26.3 34.7 35.6 42.3 0.001
Television ownership (%) 78.3 88.3 95.8 95.5 96.1 <0.001
Pucca housing (%) 4.5 12.2 15.3 22.7 47.1 <0.001
In-house tap water (%) 4.5 7.6 6.7 10.6 30.8 <0.001
Education (grade achieved) 2.1 ± 3.5 3.1 ± 4.4 3.2 ± 4.2 3.7 ± 4.5 4.4 ± 4.8 0.007
Physical activity characteristics
Physical activity (hours/day of moderate physical activity) 4.0 ± 3.4 4.4 ± 3.7 4.3 ± 4.0 3.2 ± 3.4 1.1 ± 2.3 <0.001
Sitting time (hours/day) 4.2 ± 2.6 4.3 ± 4.3 4.3 ± 2.5 5.0 ± 2.8 6.2 ± 2.8 <0.001
Television time (hours/day) 1.3 ± 1.35 1.3 ± 1.2 1.6 ± 1.2 1.8 ± 1.37 2.1 ± 1.6 <0.001
Labour occupation (%) 63.6 64.4 56.7 51.6 38.5 0.012
Dietary characteristics
Current alcohol consumer (%) 49.4 46.2 52.5 44.7 34.6 0.432
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 2390 ± 758 2365 ± 724 2439 ± 625 2440 ± 702 2031 ± 585 0.11
Carbohydrates (g/1000 kcal) 183 ± 14 181 ± 15 177 ± 15 177 ± 13 170 ± 8 <0.001
Protein (g/1000 kcal) 25.5 ± 1.9 25.7 ± 2.0 25.5 ± 1.8 25.9 ± 1.7 26.2 ± 1.8 0.26
Total fat (g/1000 kcal) 18.2 ± 5.3 19.2 ± 5.3 20.6 ± 4.8 21.2 ± 5.1 23.6 ± 2.9 <0.001
Dietary fibre (g/1000 kcal) 34.4 ± 12 32.7 ± 13 29.3 ± 11 29.6 ± 11 23.1 ± 7.7 <0.001
Dairy products (g/1000 kcal) 85.2 ± 77 74.1 ± 64 79.7 ± 62 87.1 ± 67 102.5 ± 66 0.11
Pulses and legumes (g/1000 kcal) 24.2 ± 11 27.6 ± 12 29.6 ± 12 29.4 ± 12 30.7 ± 11 0.01
Meat and poultry (g/100 kcal) 2.93 ± 3.8 3.3 ± 4.1 2.8 ± 3 3.3 ± 4.6 3.7 ± 3.4 0.61
Fruits and vegetables (g/1000 kcal) 63.1 ± 41 75.6 ± 46 86.6 ± 58 84.3 ± 50 87.0 ± 37 <0.001
Refined grains (g/1000 kcal) 135 ± 76 153 ± 83 178 ± 90 165 ± 75 154.6 ± 55 <0.001