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Table 3 Determinants of diabetes in adults in rural and urban Bangladesh

From: Overweight and abdominal obesity as determinants of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Bangladesh

Value label Unadjusted Adjusted (model 1)a Adjusted (Model 2)a Adjusted (Model 3)a
OR ( 95 % CI) p value OR ( 95 % CI) p value OR ( 95 % CI) p value OR ( 95 % CI) p value
Age         
 20–39 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 40–59 2.4 (1.4–4) 0.001 2.9 (1.7–5.2) 0.000 2.7 (1.5–4.8) .001 2.7 (1.5–4.8) 0.001
 60/above 8.4 (3.1–22.2) 0.000 8.1 (2.8–23.8) 0.000 7.6 (2.6–22.5) .000 5.9 (2.1–17.5) 0.001
Sex         
 Male 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Female 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.381 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.699 0.8 (0.4–1.4) .391 1.3 (0.7–2.2) 0.421
Area         
 Rural 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Urban 5.9 (3.5–9.9) 0.000 2.5 (1.02–5.9) 0.045 2.5 (1.1–6.0) .038 2.8 (1.2–6.6) 0.017
Education         
 Illiterate 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Primary 0.7 (.2–1.8) 0.414 0.6 (0.2–1.6) 0.273 0.5 (0.2–1.5) .233 0.6 (0.2–1.6) 0.296
 Secondary 3.5 (1.8–6.7) 0.000 1.5 (0.7–3.3) 0.303 1.4 (0.6–3.0) .438 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 0.239
 Post-secondary 2.8 (1.4–5.9) 0.003 0.8 (0.3–2.1) 0.681 0.8 (0.3–1.9) .568 0. 8 (0.3-2.1 0.694
Income (Taka/month)b         
 Low: ≤6,000 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Medium: 6,001–12,000 3.2 (1.5–6.7) 0.002 1.5 (0.6–3.4) 0.359 1.4 (0.6–3.4) .411 1.4 (0.6–3.3) 0.410
 High: >12,000 6.3 (3.2–12.3) 0.000 1.6 (0.7–3.9) 0..293 1.6 (0.6–3.9) .339 1.6 (0.7–3.9) 0.296
Body Mass Index (BMI)         
 Normal (18.50–24.99 kg/m2) 1.00   1.00      
 Underweight (≤18.49 kg/m2) 0.3 (0.1–0.9) 0.046 0.5 (0.1–1.5) 0.202     
 Overweight (≥25 kg/m2) 3.5 (2.2–5.8) 0.000 2.2 (1.3–3.9) 0.006     
Waist Circumference         
 Normal (<0.90 M,<0.85 F) 1.00     1.00    
 Abdominally Obese (≥0.90 M, ≥0.85 F) 5.6 (3.4–9.2) 0.000    3.3 (1.8–6.0) .000   
Waist-to-Hip ratio         
 Normal ( WC <90 cm M, WC <80 cm F) 1.00       1.00  
 High (WC ≥ 90 cm M, WC ≥ 80 cm F) 9.4 (4.6–18.9) 0.000      5.6 (2.7–11.9) 0.000
Physical Activity         
 High ≥150 min/week) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Low (<150 min/week) 3.4 (1.8–6.5) 0.000 1.1 (0.5–2.6) 0.843 1.1 (0.5–2.6) .847 0.9 (0.4–2.2) 0.906
  1. aThree separate models for three different adiposity indicators, BMI, Waist Circumference and Waist to Hip Ratio as they are highly correlated and essentially indicate body fatness
  2. bBangladesh Taka 76 = USD 1.00