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Table 4 Determinants of prediabetes in adults in rural and urban Bangladesh

From: Overweight and abdominal obesity as determinants of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Bangladesh

Value label Unadjusted Adjusted (model 1)a Adjusted (Model 2)a Adjusted (Model 3)a
OR ( 95 % CI) p value OR ( 95 % CI) p value OR ( 95 % CI) p value OR ( 95 % CI) p value
Age         
 20–39 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 40–59 1.3 (0.9–1.8 0.110 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 0.006 1.6 (1.1–2.2) 0.010 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 0.012
 60/above 1.8 (0.7–4.7) 0.225 2.1 (0.8–5.6) 0.161 2.0 (0.7–5.5) 0.169 1.8 (0.7–4.9) 0.249
Sex         
 Male 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Female 1.3 (0.9–1.8) 0.170 1.5 (1.0–2.2) 0.046 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 0.096 1.7 (1.2–2.5) 0.008
Area         
 Rural 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Urban 2.01(1.47–2.72) 0.000 a 1.4 (0.8–2.2) 0.220 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 0.205 1.5 (0.9–2.5) 0.114
Education         
 Illiterate 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Primary 1.3 (0.8–2.2) 0.236 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.328 1.3 (0.8–2.0) 0.361 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.320
 Secondary 2.1 (1.4–3.1) 0.001 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 0.034 1.6 (1.0–2.7) 0.047 1.7 (1.1–2.8) 0.028
 Post-secondary 2.2 (1.4–3.5) 0.001 1.8 (0.9–3.3) 0.068 1.7 (0.9–3.2) 0.079 1.8 (0.9–3.3) 0.064
Income (Taka/month)b         
 Low: ≤6,000 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Medium: 6,001–12,000 1.8 (1.2–2.6) 0.003 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 0.298 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 0.284 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 0.286
 High: >12,000 2.1 (1.5–3.1) 0.000 0.8 (0.5–1.3) 0.738 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.761 1.1 (0.7–1.8) 0.711
Body Mass Index (BMI)         
 Normal (18.50–24.99 kg/m2) 1.00   1.00      
 Underweight (≤18.49 kg/m2) 0.6 (0.4–1.03) 0.067 .8 (0.5–1.3) 0.298     
 Overweight (≥25 kg/m2) 1.8 (1.3–2.5) 0.000 1.4 (0.9–2.0) 0.073     
Waist Circumference         
 Normal (<0.90 M,<0.85 F) 1.00     1.00    
 Abbdominally Obese (≥0.90 M, ≥0.85 F) 2.2 (1.6–3.0) 0.000    1.7 (1.2–2.4) 0.006   
Waist-to-Hip ratio         
 Normal ( WC <90 cm M, WC <80 cm F) 1.00       1.00  
 High (WC ≥ 90 cm M, WC ≥ 80 cm F) 1.9 (1.4–2.6) 0.000      1.6 (1.2–2.3) 0.005
Physical Activity         
 High ≥150 min/week) 1.00   1.00   1.00   1.00  
 Low (<150 min/week) 1.5 (1.0–2.0) 0.028 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.567 1.1 (0.4–1.2) 0.564 1.2 (0.8–1.8) 0.455
  1. aThree separate models for three different adiposity indicators, BMI, Waist Circumference and Waist to Hip Ratio as they are highly correlated and essentially indicate body fatness
  2. bBangladesh Taka 76 = USD 1.00