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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics by PAD status

From: Body composition and ankle-brachial index in Ghanaians with asymptomatic peripheral arterial disease in a tertiary hospital

  All participants (n = 623) PAD (n = 261) Non-PAD (n = 362) p
Age, yrs 54.1 ± 10.6 54.2 ± 10.7 53.5 ± 10.2 0.493
Female, n (%) 331 (51.3) 163 (26.2) 168 (27) 0.01
Diabetes, n (%) 358 (57.4) 192 (30.8) 166 (26.6) 0.245
Duration of diabetes, yrs 6.8 ± 5.9 7.4 ± 6.2 6.2 ± 5.2 0.068
Hypertension, n (%) 292 (46.9) 143 (23) 149 (23.9) <0.001
BMI, kg/m2 28 ± 8.2 29.8 ± 8.7 26.5 ± 7.6 0.043
Height, cm 163 ± 11 163 ± 12 164 ± 12 0.402
Waist circumference, cm 93 ± 13 95 ± 15 92 ± 24 0.034
Hip circumference, cm 102 ± 12 103 ± 14 101 ± 10 0.131
Waist-hip ratio 0.92 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.09 0.92 ± 0.23 0.873
Waist-height ratio 0.56 ± 0.07 0.59 ± 0.09 0.54 ± 0.07 0.855
Systolic BP, mmHg 133 ± 27 135 ± 25 130 ± 26 0.042
Diastolic BP, mmHg 80 ± 13 83 ± 13 79 ± 13 0.25
Pulse BP, mmHg 55 ± 19 56 ± 21 54 ± 15 0.318
Mean BP, mmHg 98 ± 15 98 ± 16 98 ± 15 0.296
Heart rate, bpm 70 ± 13 79 ± 16 63 ± 15 0.008
Employed, n (%)     0.127
 Unemployed 232 (37.2) 108 (17.2) 124 (20)  
 Part-time employment 38 (6.1) 14 (2.2) 24 (3.9)  
 Full employment 353 (56.7) 136 (21.8) 217 (34.9)  
Smoking, n (%)     0.22
 Current 32 (5.1) 11 (1.7) 21 (3.4)  
 Former 111 (17.9) 44 (7) 67 ((10.9)  
 Never 480 (77) 203 (32.5) 277 (44.5)  
Alcohol intake, n (%) 189 (30.3) 118 (18.9) 71 (11.4) 0.237
Insulin use, n (%) 177 (28.4) 121 (19.4) 56 (9) 0.01