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Table 3 Logistic regression results on socio-demographic predictors of overweight/obesity among women in Ghana, GHDS: 2003–2014

From: Socio-demographic trends in overweight and obesity among parous and nulliparous women in Ghana

  Parous Nulliparous
Characteristic Model I OR [95 % CI] Model II OR [95 % CI] Model I OR [95 % CI] Model II OR [95 % CI]
Number of children
 1 1.0 1.0 na na
 2 1.732** 1.369** na na
[1.473,2.036] [1.123,1.670] na na
 3 1.548** 1.114 na na
[1.310,1.831] [0.896,1.385] na na
 4 1.624** 1.179 na na
[1.366,1.931] [0.934,1.487] na na
 5 1.339** 1.100 na na
[1.111,1.615] [0.857,1.412] na na
 6 1.192 1.309 na na
[0.973,1.462] [0.997,1.720] na na
 7+ 0.975 1.348 na na
[0.809,1.174] [1.034,1.758] na na
Age group (years)
 15–24 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 25–34 3.072** 2.404** 4.138** 2.031**
[2.561,3.685] [1.928,2.997] [3.319,5.159] [1.562,2.641]
 35–44 4.300** 3.528** 8.623** 3.584**
[3.587,5.156] [2.760,4.510] [5.616,13.24] [2.152,5.967]
 45+ 3.799** 3.314** 5.905** 3.205*
[3.089,4.673] [2.506,4.381] [1.898,18.37] [1.005,10.22]
Educational level
 No education 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Primary 2.415** 1.517** 0.858 0.885
[2.070,2.817] [1.257,1.831] [0.558,1.318] [0.561,1.397]
 Middle/JSS/JHS 2.881** 1.296** 1.279 0.932
[2.540,3.268] [1.095,1.534] [0.893,1.831] [0.629,1.381]
 Secondary/higher 3.461** 1.467** 2.848** 1.171
[2.973,4.029] [1.201,1.793] [1.946,4.167] [0.764,1.796]
Marital status
 Never married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Married 1.658** 1.496** 3.835** 1.789**
[1.314,2.091] [1.115,2.008] [2.801,5.252] [1.208,2.649]
 Cohabiting 1.289 1.127 2.120** 1.510
[0.990,1.679] [0.825,1.539] [1.459,3.080] [0.996,2.289]
 Previously married 2.058** 1.428* 3.883** 2.161*
[1.591,2.663] [1.040,1.961] [2.298,6.559] [1.190,3.925]
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Poorer 1.949** 1.503** 1.245 1.126
[1.611,2.358] [1.220,1.852] [0.735,2.107] [0.651,1.947]
 Middle 3.533** 2.220** 2.516** 2.238**
[2.952,4.227] [1.786,2.759] [1.588,3.986] [1.341,3.733]
 Richer 7.472** 4.132** 5.588** 4.480**
[6.253,8.927] [3.241,5.268] [3.663,8.526] [2.678,7.493]
 Richest 15.49** 7.648** 7.792** 5.825**
[12.86,18.65] [5.836,10.02] [5.162,11.76] [3.438,9.869]
Occupation
 Not working 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Prof/managerial 2.197** 1.315* 3.568** 1.800**
[1.760,2.743] [1.023,1.689] [2.799,4.548] [1.361,2.381]
 Sales/Trade 2.184** 1.435** 2.801** 1.553**
[1.835,2.599] [1.178,1.749] [2.216,3.542] [1.185,2.035]
 Agriculture 0.426** 0.702** 0.567* 0.953
[0.354,0.514] [0.561,0.879] [0.357,0.903] [0.581,1.562]
 Manual labour 1.261* 1.086 2.090** 1.360
[1.022,1.556] [0.857,1.377] [1.557,2.806] [0.988,1.872]
Type of locality
 Urban 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Rural 0.285** 0.958 0.402** 1.158*
[0.257,0.316] [0.825,1.113] [0.330,0.489] [0.892,1.504]
Ethnicity
 Akan 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Ga/Adangbe 1.305** 1.195 1.591** 1.582**
[1.081,1.576] [0.957,1.493] [1.191,2.127] [1.151,2.173]
 Ewe 0.831* 1.034 0.935 1.059
[0.716,0.963] [0.873,1.225] [0.708,1.233] [0.787,1.424]
 Mole-Dagbani 0.357** 0.663** 0.584** 1.000
[0.307,0.416] [0.546,0.804] [0.438,0.779] [0.726,1.377]
 Gurma 0.177** 0.495** 0.485* 0.947
[0.124,0.251] [0.345,0.709] [0.266,0.884] [0.479,1.871]
 Others 0.694** 1.041 0.994 1.394*
[0.590,0.817] [0.860,1.260] [0.752,1.313] [1.025,1.897]
Survey year
 2003 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 2008 1.309** 1.389** 1.261* 1.404**
[1.164,1.471] [1.197,1.613] [1.023,1.554] [1.113,1.772]
 2014 2.134** 2.386** 1.719** 1.888**
[1.891,2.407] [2.051,2.775] [1.380,2.142] [1.479,2.410]
N 9028 9028 4454 4454
 Pseudo R2   0.1994   0.1468
 Wald X2 (df)   1401.38 (31)   403.06 (25)
 Prob. > X2   0.0000   0.0000
 Hosmer-Lemeshow X2 (df) 5.50 (8)   12.66 (8)
 Prob. > X2   0.7032   0.1242
  1. OR Odds Ratios; 95 % confidence intervals in brackets, *p < .05, **p < .01; na = not applicable
  2. Model I = Bivariate logistic regression analysis
  3. Model II = Multivariate logistic regression analysis (age, educational level, marital status, wealth quintile, occupation, type of locality, ethnicity, number of children (only parous women), and survey year)