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Table 3 Relationship between economic status and BMI Z-Scores of Boys

From: Association between economic status and body mass index among adolescents: a community-based cross-sectional study in Japan

  Model 1a Model 2b (+ grade, school, family structure) Model 3 (Model 2 + family members’ smoking status) Model 4 (Model 2 + breakfast skipping) Model 5 (Model 2 + activities outside of school) Model 6 (Model 2 + sleeping patterns) Model 7 (Model 2 + self-rated health status) Model 8c (Model 2 + all mediators)
  B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p
Family characteristics                         
 Economic status                         
 Low (ref: non-low) −0.07 0.10 0.460 −0.10 0.10 0.327 −0.10 0.10 0.326 −0.10 0.10 0.312 −0.10 0.10 0.302 −0.10 0.10 0.318 −0.10 0.10 0.291 −0.11 0.10 0.241
 Family structure                         
 Single parent or stepfamily (ref: both biological parents) 0.15** 0.05 0.005 0.15** 0.05 0.005 0.15** 0.05 0.005 0.14** 0.05 0.009 0.15** 0.05 0.004 0.15** 0.05 0.004 0.15** 0.05 0.005 0.14** 0.05 0.006
 Family members’ smoking status
 Yes (ref: none) 0.003 0.04 0.944     0.014 0.04 0.725              0.01 0.04 0.798
Child characteristics                         
 Breakfast skipping                         
 Yes (ref: no) 0.13* 0.06 0.029        0.11 0.06 0.083           0.08 0.06 0.199
 Convenience stores or fast-food outlets
 <1 time per week (ref: ≥ 1 time per week) −0.01 0.05 0.802                    −0.05 0.05 0.343
 Club activities at school
 Non-physical (ref: physical) 0.11 0.08 0.193                    0.02 0.08 0.804
 No participation (ref: physical) 0.03 0.05 0.538                    0.03 0.07 0.665
 Activities outside of school
 No (ref: yes) −0.06 0.04 0.130           −0.07 0.04 0.078        −0.08 0.04 0.049
 Sleeping patterns                         
 <6 h 30 min (ref: ≥ 6 h 30 min) 0.19*** 0.05 <0.001              0.18*** 0.05 <0.001     0.17** 0.05 0.001
 Self-rated health status                         
 Not good (ref: good) 0.09 0.08 0.217                 0.11 0.08 0.151 0.08 0.08 0.326
 Smoking status                         
 Yes (ref: no) 0.13 0.11 0.226                    0.04 0.11 0.736
  1. B = Partial regression coefficient, aunivariate regression; bmultiple regression adjusted for confounding variables; cmultiple regression adjusted for all mediators
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001