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Table 4 Relationship Between Economic Status and BMI Z-Scores of Girls

From: Association between economic status and body mass index among adolescents: a community-based cross-sectional study in Japan

  Model 1a Model 2b (+ grade, school, family structure) Model 3 (Model 2 + family members’ smoking status) Model 4 (Model 2 + breakfast skipping) Model 5 (Model 2 + activities outside of school) Model 6 (Model 2 + sleeping patterns) Model 7 (Model 2 + self-rated health status) Model 8c (Model 2 + all mediators)
  B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p B SE p
Family characteristics
 Economic status
 Low (ref: non-low) 0.35** 0.10 0.001 0.32** 0.10 0.002 0.31** 0.10 0.003 0.25* 0.11 0.017 0.31** 0.10 0.003 0.32** 0.11 0.003 0.30** 0.11 0.005 0.21* 0.11 0.044
 Family structure
 Single parent or stepfamily (ref: both biological parents) 0.14** 0.05 0.005 0.11* 0.05 0.021 0.11* 0.05 0.021 0.08 0.05 0.094 0.11* 0.05 0.026 0.11* 0.05 0.022 0.11* 0.05 0.023 0.07 0.05 0.139
 Family members’ smoking status
 Yes (ref: none) 0.08* 0.04 0.042     0.07* 0.04 0.049              0.05 0.04 0.211
Child characteristics
 Breakfast skipping
 Yes (ref: no) 0.26*** 0.05 <0.001        0.22*** 0.05 <0.001          0.21*** 0.05 <0.001
 Convenience stores or fast-food outlets
 <1 time per week (ref: ≥ 1 time per week) −0.03 0.05 0.529                    −0.06 0.05 0.220
 Club activities at school
 Non-physical (ref: physical) 0.07 0.04 0.120                    0.03 0.04 0.448
 No participation (ref: physical) −0.04 0.05 0.379                    −0.05 0.07 0.450
 Activities outside of school
 No (ref: yes) 0.12** 0.04 0.001           0.10* 0.04 0.010        0.10* 0.04 0.012
 Sleeping patterns
 <6 h 30 min (ref: ≥ 6 h 30 min) 0.07 0.04 0.113              0.04 0.04 0.394     0.004 0.04 0.921
 Self-rated health status
 Not good (ref: good) 0.16* 0.07 0.015                 0.10 0.07 0.130 0.08 0.07 0.250
 Smoking status
 Yes (ref: no) 0.18 0.12 0.150                    0.11 0.12 0.389
  1. B = Partial regression coefficient, aunivariate regression; bmultiple regression adjusted for confounding variables; cmultiple regression adjusted for all mediators
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001