Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the children according to nutritional status

From: Early rapid weight gain and subsequent overweight and obesity in middle childhood in Peru

   Normala Overweight Obese Total
   N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Total   1094 (71.9) 294 (19.3) 133 (8.7) 1521
Sex Female 563 (51.5) 133 (45.2) 49 (36.8) 745 (49.0)
Male 531 (48.5) 161 (54.8) 84 (63.2) 776 (51.0)
Residence area (aged 1 year) Urban 670 (61.2) 228 (77.6) 124 (93.2) 1022 (67.2)
Rural 424 (38.8) 66 (22.4) 9 (6.7) 499 (32.8)
Residence area (aged 8 years) Urban 747 (68.3) 245 (83.3) 127 (95.5) 1119 (73.6)
Rural 347 (31.7) 49 (16.7) 6 (4.5) 402 (35.9)
Birth weight <2.5 kg 67 (6.1) 14 (4.8) 6 (4.5) 87 (5.7)
≥4.0 kg 58 (5.3) 18 (6.1) 9 (6.8) 85 (5.6)
Breastfed Breastfed at any time 1079 (98.6) 289 (98.3) 130 (97.7) 1498 (98.5)
Stunting (aged 8 years) > − 2SD HAZ (height for age Z-score) 241 (22.0) 38 (12.9) 6 (4.5) 285 (18.7)
Urban (% stunted aged 8 years) 117 (48.6) 13 (34.2) 6 (100.0) 136 (47.7)
Rural (% stunted aged 8 years) 124 (51.5) 25 (65.8) 0 149 (52.3)
Stunted (% urban aged 8 years) 117 (15.7) 13 (5.3) 6 (4.7) 136 (12.2)
Stunted (% rural aged 8 years) 124 (35.7) 25 (37.9) 0 149 (37.1)
Soda drinks (aged 8 years) Frequency ≥1/week 757 (69.2) 226 (76.9) 106 (79.7) 1089 (71.6)
Fast food (aged 8 years) Frequency ≥1/week 677 (61.9) 220 (74.8) 102 (76.7) 999 (65.7)
   Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
BMI for age (BAZ) aged 8 years 8 years 0.04 ± 0.7 1.4 ± 0.3 2.69 ± 0.5 0.54 ± 1.07
Waist circumference aged 8 years cms 58.47 ± 3.51 64.07 ± 4.55 73.30 ± 6.51 60.84 ± 6.01b
Height for age (aged 8 years)   −1.26 ± 0.9 −0.87 ± 1.04 −0.04 ± 1.03 −1.08 ± 1.0
Weight gain in Infancy (1 year-Birth) Difference in W/A Z-score −0.07 ± 1.3 0.46 ± 1.3 0.69 ± 1.2 0.1 ± 1.31
Weight gain in childhood (5–1 year) Difference in W/A Z-score −0.44 ± 0.85 −0.28 ± 0.88 0.36 ± 1.1 −0.33 ± 0.9
Weight gain in childhood (8–5 years) Difference in W/A Z-score 0.06 ± 0.4 0.48 ± 0.5 0.86 ± 0.8 0.21 ± 0.5
Mothers education Years of education 7.5 ± 4.4 9.2 ± 4.5 11.1 ± 3.4 8.15 ± 4.5
BMI of mother (child aged 8 years)   26.44 ± 4.1 28.40 ± 4.4 29.28 ± 4.8 27.07 ± 4.3
Wealth Indexc (aged 8 years)   0.53 ± 0.2 0.63 ± 0.2 0.70 ± 0.1 0.56 ± 0.2
Household size (aged 8 years) No people living in the house 5.45 ± 1.9 5.16 ± 1.9 5.04 ± 1.9 5.36 ± 1.9
Hours asleep (aged 8 years) No hours normal school day 9.6 ± 0.9 9.58 ± 0.9 9.36 ± 0.8 9.61 ± 0.9
Active exercised (aged 8 years) No days in previous 7 days 3.73 ± 2.7 3.63 ± 2.7 2.77 ± 2.4 3.63 ± 2.7
  1. aNot overweight or obese
  2. bWaist circumference measurements are missing from five children
  3. c Score consisting of housing quality and utilities and ownership of goods
  4. dQuestion asked: “During the last 7 days, on how many days was [Name] physically active for at least 60 min at one time? (Examples for physical activity would be running, biking, dancing, football, digging, carrying water, or other activities)”