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Table 7 Odds ratios of being overweight using pooled data from 30 African countries

From: Complex association between rural/urban residence, household wealth and women’s overweight: evidence from 30 cross-sectional national household surveys in Africa

  All Africa (N = 208, 656) Plus globalization variables Plus health indicators
Characteristic Odds ratio 99% CI Odds ratio 99% CI Odds ratio 99% CI
Age 1.263 (1.248, 1.278) 1.264 (1.249, 1.279) 1.271 (1.255, 1.286)
Age squared 0.997 (0.997,0.998) 0.997 (0.997, 0.998) 0.997 (0.997, 0.997)
Urban resident 2.112 (1.957, 2.279) 2.133 (1.975, 2.305) 2.209 (2.040, 2.392)
Absolute wealth 1.158 (1.147, 1.169) 1.159 (1.148, 1.170) 1.164 (1.152, 1.175)
Interaction: Wealth*Urban/rural 0.950 (0.938, 0.962) 0.949 (0.937, 0.961) 0.947 (0.935, 0.959)
Macro-level variables
 LN GNI    1.892 (0.910, 3.931) 0.583 (0.303, 1.122)
 % urban population    0.994 (0.976, 1.012) 0.991 (0.977, 1.005)
 % female overweight      1.041 (1.027, 1.067)
 Life expectancy at birth      0.979 (0.949,1.009)
 HIV prevalence      0.972 (0.939, 1.006)
Random coefficients
Cluster level variance 0.218 (0.008)   0.231 (0.008)   0.264 (0.009)  
Country-level variance 0.247 (0.064)   0.211(0.055)   0.069 (0.018)  
  1. Models include: highest education level, marital status, breastfeeding status, and use of contraception