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Table 2 Demographically adjusted performance z-scores with cognitive domains

From: Neuropsychological function in individuals with morbid obesity: a cross-sectional study

Measure Mean (SD) Minimum Maximum t-value
 CVLT Total recall .695 (1.406) −4.720 3.8  
 CVLT Immediate free recall .394 (1.117) −3.500 2.000  
 CVLT Delayed free recall .415 (1.020) −2.500 2.000  
 WMS-R Verbal memory 1 .567 (.871) −1.881 2.326  
 WMS-R Verbal memory 2 .688 (.883) −2.326 2.326  
Verbal memory mean .552 (0.842) −2.011 2.256 6.391**
 WMS-R Visual memory 1 .291 (.805) −1.555 2.054  
 WMS-R Visual memory 2 -.226 (.875) −2.326 2.326  
 RCFT Immediate recall -.532 (1.199) −4.900 1.600  
 RCFT Delayed recall -.568 (1.321) −4.900 1.800  
Visual memory mean -.259 (.838) −2.692 1.895 −3.024*
 D-KEFS CWIT Color naming -.382 (.807) −3.333 1.000  
 D-KEFS CWIT Word reading -.115 (.707) −2.333 1.000  
 WAIS-III Digit symbol -.326 (.742) −1.667 2.000  
 TMT A -.046 (1.256) −5.000 2.100  
Processing speed mean -.219 (.595) −1.825 .908 −3.567*
 WAIS III Block design .340 (.957) −1.667 3.000  
 WAIS III Matrix reasoning .361 (.875) −1.667 2.333  
 RCFT Copya -.036 (1.067) −3.505 1.549  
Visuospatial ability mean .152 (.810) −1.766 1.835 1.838
 WMS-R Digit span forward .308 (.889) −2.326 2.326  
 WMS-R Digit span backward .882 (1.183) −1.645 2.326  
 PASAT3 -.190 (1.015) −3.274 1.529  
 PASAT2 −1.057 (.988) −4.107 .794  
Working memory mean .002 (.658) −1.418 1.450 .033
 WCST Total error -.670 (.993) −3.000 2.000  
 WCST Perseverative responses -.503 (.777) −2.700 2.900  
 D-KEFS Tower total correct .203 (.701) −2.000 1.667  
 D-KEFS Tower precision score -.284 (.901) −2.667 3.000  
 TMT B -.167 (1.246) −3.900 1.800  
 D-KEFS CWIT Inhibition .063 (.848) −3.000 1.333  
 D-KEFS CWIT Inhibition/switching -.182 (1.015) −3.000 1.333  
Executive function mean 1 (Tower total) -.198 (.572) −2.272 1.267 −3.290*
Executive function mean II (Tower precision) -.283 (.551) −1.772 1.156 −4.867**
 D-KEFS Letter fluency .020 (1.230) −2.333 3.000  
 D-KEFS Category fluency .677 (1.347) 3.000 6.000  
 D-KEFS Category switching .031 (946) −2.333 2.333  
Verbal fluency mean .243 (.967) −2.333 2.444 2.461**
 (CPT-II) Omissions -.455* (1.176) −4.620 .790  
 Commissions -.552 (1.172) −3.689 1.429  
 Hit rate .470 (1.275) −3.876 3.398  
 Hit RT SE -.565 (1.346) −4.985 2.010  
 Detectability -.429 (.865) −3.302 1.674  
 Hit RT block change -.266 (1.087) −3.172 2.584  
 Hit SE block change -.898 (1.311) −7.590 1.456  
 Hit RT ISI change -.034 (1.301) −4.247 2.404  
 Hit SE ISI change .009 (1.356) −4.462 2.672  
Attention/vigilance mean -.251 (.557) −1.50 .76 −4.254**
 Dynamometer Dominant hand -.109 (1.058) −2.400 2.300  
 Dynamometer Non-dominant hand .023 (1.076) −1.700 3.200  
 Pegboard Dominant hand -.247 (1.147) −5.000 2.100  
 Pegboard Non-dominant hand -.333 (1.329) −5.000 1.700  
Motor function mean -.154 (.780) −1.750 1.350 −1.802
  1. Notes: No normative data was available for the Category test 108-card version. Thus this test was left out from further analysis
  2. aRCFT Copy: A US sample of 98 healthy controls similar in age and years of education were used as reference
  3. *p-value < .05
  4. **p-value < .001