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Table 1 Prenatal and postpartum characteristics of the women with GDM enrolled into the SWIFT Study (N = 888)

From: Dietary variables associated with substantial postpartum weight retention at 1-year among women with GDM pregnancy

Characteristics Total N = 888 < 5 kg 1-yr. weight retention (N = 690) ≥ 5 kg 1-yr. weight retention (N = 198) P-value
Maternal Age (yr) 32.6 ± 4.8 32.9 ± 4.6 31.8 ± 5.1 0.005
Maternal Race/ Ethnicity     0.005
 Non-Hispanic White 214 (24.1) 162 (23.5) 52 (26.3)  
 Non-Hispanic Black 68 (7.7) 44 (6.4) 24 (12.1)
 Hispanics 260 (29.3) 197 (28.6) 63 (31.8)
 Asian 329 (37.1) 275 (39.9) 54 (27.3)
 Other 17 (1.9) 12 (1.7) 5 (2.5)
Education level     <.001
 High school or less 207 (23.3) 155 (22.5) 52 (26.2)  
 Some college 245 (27.6) 172 (24.9) 73 (36.9)
  ≥ 4 years of college 436 (49.1) 363 (52.6) 73 (36.9)
Receiving WIC benefits     <.001
 No 668 (75.2) 538 (78.0) 130 (65.7)  
 Yes 220 (24.8) 152 (22.0) 68 (34.3)
Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI (kg/m2) 29.4 ± 7.1 28.9 ± 6.7 31.1 ± 8.3 <.001
Total GWG (kg) 10.2 ± 6.6 9.2 ± 5.9 14.0 ± 7.4 <.001
Weight Retention at Baseline (kg) 1.2 ± 6.0 0.1 ± 5.4 5.3 ± 6.0 <.001
Breastfeeding Duration (months) 8.9 ± 7.2 9.3 ± 7.2 7.8 ± 7.2 0.001
Infant Gestational Age (weeks) 39.0 ± 1.1 39.1 ± 1.1 39.0 ± 1.2 0.608
Infant Birth Weight (g) 3404.6 ± 500.8 3392.4 ± 494.0 3446.8 ± 522.7 0.178
Total GWG for IOM Levels:     <.001
 Excessive 306 (34.5) 188 (27.2) 118 (59.5)  
 Within or Below 582 (65.5) 502 (72.8) 80 (40.5)
2-h 75 g OGTT at Baseline:     0.002
 Normal 579 (65.2) 468 (67.8) 111 (56.1)  
 Pre-diabetes 309 (34.8) 222 (32.2) 87 (43.9)
Breastfeeding Duration Categories:     0.01
 0 to <2 months 169 (19.0) 123 (17.8) 46 (23.2)  
 2 to 5 months 175 (19.7) 126 (18.3) 49 (24.8)
  > 5 to 10 months 186 (21.0) 144 (20.9) 42 (21.2)
  > 10 months 358 (40.3) 297 (43.0) 61 (30.8)
Transition to Pre-DM or DM at 1-yr.:     0.004
 Normal at baseline and 1-yr 361 (42.4) 301 (45.3) 60 (31.9)  
 Pre-DM at baseline, & not DM at 1-yr 255 (30) 187 (28.2) 68 (36.2)
 Normal at baseline, developed pre-DM or DM at 1-yr 236 (27.7) 176 (26.5) 60 (31.9)
  1. Data are n (%), or mean ± SD; Chi-square or t-tests were performed to assess significant different in demographics between weight retention categories. BMI Body Mass Index, WIC Women, Infant, and Children, GWG gestational weight gain, IOM Institute of Medicine, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, BF breastfeeding, Pre-DM Pre-diabetes, DM Diabetes