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Table 3 Odds Ratios for soda consumption categories/fried food consumption categories at 6–9 weeks postpartum and substantial postpartum weight retention (≥5 kg) at 1-year for entire samplea

From: Dietary variables associated with substantial postpartum weight retention at 1-year among women with GDM pregnancy

Total sample Soda consumption categories
N = 888 None (n = 501) 1 or less serv/wk. (n = 245) ≥ 2 serv/wk. (n = 142) Overall Groups P-value
Model 1:
 Unadjusted Referent 1.30 (0.90–1.89) 2.31 (1.53–3.49)* 0.005
Model 2:b
 Adjusted Referent 1.04 (0.69–1.58) 1.94 (1.22–3.07)* 0.014
Model 3:c
 Adjusted Referent 1.04 (0.68–1.57) 1.95 (1.22–3.11)* 0.014
Model 4:d
 Adjusted Referent 1.00 (0.65–1.53) 1.61 (0.98–2.66) 0.136
Fried food consumption categories      
N = 888 None (n = 295) 1 serv/wk. (n = 353) 2–4 serv/wk. (n = 208) ≥ 5 serv/wk. (n = 32) Overall Groups P-value
Model 1:
 Unadjusted Referent 1.23 (0.82–1.82) 1.99 (1.30–3.04)* 3.72 (1.74–7.96)* <0.001
Model 2:b
 Adjusted Referent 1.06 (0.69–1.63) 1.84 (1.15–2.92)* 3.38 (1.44–7.96)* 0.003
Model 3:c
 Adjusted Referent 1.12 (0.72–1.73) 1.89 (1.18–3.02)* 3.50 (1.48–8.29)* 0.003
Model 4:e
 Adjusted Referent 1.12 (0.71–1.75) 1.80 (1.08–3.00)* 3.38 (1.36–8.38)* 0.015
  1. *Statistically significant associations (p < 0.01 or <0.05) for individual group compared to the referent group
  2. Borderline statistically significant association (p = 0.06) for individual group compared to the referent group
  3. aData are OR (95% CI)
  4. bModel 2 adjusted for BF duration, pre-pregnancy BMI, education level, gestational weight gain
  5. cModel 3 adjusted for BF duration, pre-pregnancy BMI, education level, gestational weight gain, (baseline glucose tolerance plus transition of glucose tolerant categories from baseline (6–9 weeks postpartum) to 1-year postpartum)
  6. dModel 4 adjusted for BF duration, pre-pregnancy BMI, education level, gestational weight gain, (baseline glucose tolerance plus transition of glucose tolerant categories from baseline (6–9 weeks postpartum) to 1-year postpartum) and fried foods, eggs, and processed meats
  7. eModel 4 adjusted for BF duration, pre-pregnancy BMI, education level, gestational weight gain, (baseline glucose tolerance plus transition of glucose tolerant categories from baseline (6–9 weeks postpartum) to 1-year postpartum) and soda, eggs, and processed meats