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Table 4 The effect of age, gender, and socioeconomic covariates on controlled motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating

From: Motivation and perceived competence for healthy eating and exercise among overweight/obese adolescents in comparison to normal weight adolescents

  Normal weight (LSM ± SE) Overweight + Obese (LSM ± SE) p-value
Controlled motivation for eating a healthy diet
 Unadjusted 17.9 ± 1.5 23.8 ± 1.2 0.002
 Age, Gender 18.1 ± 1.5 23.7 ± 1.2 0.004
 Age, Gender, Father’s Education 18.7 ± 1.5 24.3 ± 1.3 0.007
 Age, Gender, Family Income 18.2 ± 1.6 23.1 ± 1.3 0.02
Perceived competence for eating a healthy diet
 Unadjusted 19.6 ± 0.9 22.0 ± 0.7 0.03
 Age, Gender 19.5 ± 0.9 22.1 ± 0.7 0.02
 Age, Gender, Father’s Education 19.5 ± 0.9 22.2 ± 0.7 0.02
 Age, Gender, Family Income 19.1 ± 0.9 22.0 ± 0.8 0.02
  1. Legend: For controlled motivation, female gender had a positive effect, father’s education had a positive association, while age and family income had negative associations. However, the effects of these covariates were not statistically significant, and controlled motivation remained higher in the overweight/obese group after adjustment. For perceived competence for eating a healthy diet, female gender had a negative effect, while age, father’s education, and family income had positive associations. However, the effects of these covariates were not statistically significant, and perceived competence remained higher in the overweight/obese group after adjustment. Data are represented as the least square means (LSM) and standard error (SE) for each group