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Table 4 Factors associated with overweight and obesity (BMIZ >1 SD) among Ghanaian children 9–15 years

From: Prevalence and predictors of overweight and obesity among school-aged children in urban Ghana

  Adjusted Odds Ratiob 95% Confidence Interval p-value
Child’s sex
 Female 2.38 1.79, 3.18 <0.01
 Male 1   
Breakfast ≥ 3 days/week
 No 0.76 0.58, 1.00 0.05
 Yes 1   
Eats Cakes, pies, doughnuts ≥3 days/week
 Yes 0.83 0.66, 1.04 0.10
 No 1   
Fruit consumption (frequency/week)
 > 15 0.41 0.14, 1.17 0.09
 11–15 1.13a 0.65, 1.93 0.67
 6–10 1.07a 0.78, 1.46 0.69
 0–5 1   
Vegetable consumption (frequency/week)
 > 15 1.27 0.69, 2.32 0.44
 11–15 1.48 0.99, 2.23 0.06
 6–10 1.16 0.92, 1.46 0.20
 0–5 1   
Transported to school (days/week)
 4–5 1.39 1.06, 1.82 0.02
 1–3 1.11 0.52, 2.37 0.79
 Never 1   
Engaged in any sporting activity ≥ 3 times/week
 No 1.44 1.07, 1.94 0.02
 Yes 1   
School type
 Private 1.74 1.31, 2.32 <0.01
 Public 1   
Maternal education
 Tertiary 1.91 1.07, 3.42 0.03
 Secondary 1.00 0.57, 1.75 0.99
 Primary 1.12 0.68, 1.84 0.65
 Don’t know 1.14 0.69, 1.89 0.61
 None 1   
Household socioeconomic status
 High 1.56 1.18, 2.06 <0.01
 Medium 1.10 0.81, 1.49 0.54
 Low 1   
  1. aBorderline significant values (0.05 ≤ P < 0.08)
  2. bOther variables controlled in the analysis: age, child engaged in household chores, and frequency of sweetened beverage consumption