Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations between non-nutritive sweeteners (dependent variable) and subjects’ characteristics

From: Intake of non-nutritive sweeteners is associated with an unhealthy lifestyle: a cross-sectional study in subjects with morbid obesity

Patient characteristics NNS
total
NNS carb.
beverages
NNS non-carb.
beverages
NNS
sweeteners
B p-value B p-value B p-value B p-value
Gender (female/male) −0.10 0.838 0.519 0.285 −0.049 0.924 −2.896 0.005
Age (years) −0.04 0.073 −0.014 0.544 −0.045 0.063 0.002 0.951
BMI (kg/m2) −0.025 0.640 −0.007 0.902 −0.032 0.582 0.040 0.510
Living with someone −0.728 0.151 −0.030 0.953 −0.981 0.060 −0.011 0.985
Working −0.124 0.594 0.383 0.114 −0.379 0.126 −0.047 0.858
Smoking 0.194 0.485 0.196 0.492 −0.043 0.884 −0.110 0.715
Perceived general health 0.011 0.965 0.070 0.793 0.098 0.722 0.083 0.771
Total physical activity −0.184 0.029 −0.086 0.308 −0.030 0.732 0.014 0.883
Heavy physical activity −0.477 0.011 −0.368 0.052 −0.212 0.278 0.116 0.576
Hypertension 0.201 0.607 0.261 0.518 −0.128 0.759 −0.340 0.442
Diabetes 0.971 0.039 0.639 0.174 1.227 0.012 0.171 0.748
Fibromyalgia 0.696 0.131 0.202 0.664 0.718 0.132 0.568 0.249
Muscle-skeletal pain score (range 0-12) −0.004 0.952 0.001 0.987 −0.097 0.149 0.058 0.397
HSCL10 > 1.85 0.073 0.855 −0.194 0.639 −0.664 0.137 −0.028 0.951
WHO-5 (poor wellbeing) 0.452 0.249 0.805 0.046 −0.135 0.746 −0.297 0.509
Fatigue 1.232 0.001 0.490 0.184 0.316 0.408 0.575 0.159
IBS 0.317 0.444 −0.193 0.651 0.207 0.633 −0.047 0.915
Functional bloating −0.379 0.486 0.600 0.280 −0.714 0.258 −1.365 0.067
Functional diarrhea NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
GSRS-diarrhea (score) 0.625 0.009 0.178 0.447 0.176 0.467 0.626 0.012
GSRS-bloating (score) −0.112 0.509 −0.033 0.849 −0.324 0.084 −0.184 0.320
Blood tests
 Haemoglobin (g/dl) −0.299 0.149 −0.063 0.765 −0.625 0.007 −0.534 0.022
 Serum iron (μmol/L −0.015 0.648 −0.042 0.237 −0.011 0.768 −0.049 0.205
 Transferrin saturation −0.875 0.673 −0.025 0.255 −0.011 0.631 −0.033 0.167
 Ferritin (μg/dL) 0.002 0.311 −0.001 0.450 0.000 0.909 −0.001 0.615
 CRP (mg/L) 0.040 0.226 0.029 0.393 0.081 0.020 0.042 0.228
 s-Glucose (mmol/L) 0.110 0.082 0.122 0.055 0.044 0.492 0.005 0.944
 HbA1C (%) 0.294 0.052 0.235 0.117 0.367 0.018 0.076 0.644
 c-peptide (nmol/L) 0.662 0.005 0.410 0.077 0.279 0.244 0.509 0.052
 Cholesterol (mmol/L) 0.116 0.542 0.188 0.339 −0.043 0.830 −0.096 0.661
 HDL (mmol/L) −0.612 0.291 −0.164 0.782 −1.017 0.115 0.541 0.394
 LDL (mmol/L) 0.164 0.427 0.164 0.438 −0.026 0.907 −0.179 0.457
 Vitamin A (μmol/L) 0.291 0.536 −0.725 0.136 −0.232 0.644 0.050 0.921
 Vitamin B1 (nmol/L) 0.008 0.243 0.006 0.356 0.001 0.876 0.007 0.363
 Vitamin B6 (nmol/L) 0.004 0.479 0.005 0.407 −0.011 0.178 −0.002 0.759
 Vitamin B12 (pmol/L) −0.001 0.384 0.000 0.727 0.000 0.940 −0.001 0.503
 Vitamin D (nmol/L) 0.006 0.458 0.012 0.166 0.001 0.952 0.000 0.966
 Folic acid (nmol/L) −0.024 0.269 −0.007 0.759 −0.021 0.362 −0.018 0.433
  1. HSCL10 Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10, WHO-5 WHO-5 Well-Being Index, IBS Irritable bowel syndrome, GSRS Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale, HDL High Density Lipoprotein, LDL Low Density Lipoprotein
  2. The analyses have been performed with ordinal logistic regression analyses adjusted for gender, age and BMI)