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Table 2 Studies on the insulin resistance risk associated with SSB consumption

From: The negative impact of sugar-sweetened beverages on children’s health: an update of the literature

Author, Year Setting Sample Size Sample Age Method of Diet Assessment SSB Unit of Analysis Primary Outcome Direction of Association Findings
Cross-Sectional Studies
Bremer, 2009 Nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents, NHANES, 1994-2004 6967 12-19 years Single 24-hour dietary recall interview Increment of a serving/day (serving = 250g) Change in HOMA-IR Positive β = 0.05 [SE= 0.02]*
Bremer, 2010 Nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents, NHANES, 1999-2004 6967 12-19 years Single 24-hour dietary recall interview Increment of a serving/day (serving = 250g) Change in HOMA-IR Mixed Non-Hispanic White:
β= 0.06 [SE=0.02]*
Non-Hispanic Black:
β=0.12 [SE=0.05]*
Mexican Americans:
β=0.04 [SE=0.04]
Kondaki, 2012 Adolescents in large multicenter European study 546 12-17 years Mini FFQ from Health Behavior in School-Aged Children study ≥1 time/day vs. <1 time/week
5-6 times/week vs. <1 time/week
2-4 times/week vs. <1 time/week, (serving = not reported)
Change in HOMA-IR Positive ≥1 time/day vs. ≤ 1 time/week
β = 0.19 [95%CI: 0.003, 0.38]*
5-6 times/week vs. ≤1 time/week
β = 0.28 [95%CI: 0.07, 0.49]*
2-4 times/week vs. ≤ 1 time/week
β =0.080 [95%CI:
-0.084, 0.245]
Santiago-Torres, 2016 Hispanic children attending inner-city school in Milwaukee 187 10-14 years Block for Kid’s FFQ with Hispanic foods SSB consumption, (serving = not reported) Change in HOMA-IR Positive β =0.104*
No measure of variation reported
Wang, 2012 Caucasian children recruited from primary schools in Canada 632 8-10 years Three 24-hour dietary recalls Increment of a serving/day (serving = 100ml) Change in HOMA-IR Mixed
Null overall
Positive in one sub-group
Null in one sub-group
Among all children:
β =0.024
> 85th BMI percentile
β = 0.097*
<85th BMI percentile
β =-0.027
No measure of variation reported
Longitudinal Studies
Wang, 2014 Caucasian Canadian children with at least one obese parent 564 8-10 years Three 24-hour dietary recalls Increment of 10g/day of added sugar from liquid sources HOMA-IR Positive Among all children:
0.091 [95%CI: 0.034, 0.149] *
Overweight/ obese:
0.121 [95%CI: 0.013, 0.247] *
Normal weight:
0.046 [95%CI:
-0.003, 0.096]
  1. Note: *indicates statistical significance (p<0.05) as reported by each study