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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and comparisons between men and women for 284 persons with T1D

From: Abdominal obesity in type 1 diabetes associated with gender, cardiovascular risk factors and complications, and difficulties achieving treatment targets: a cross sectional study at a secondary care diabetes clinic

  All patients Men Women P a
N 284 159 (56) 125 (44)  
Age (years) 42 (32, 51; 18–59) 43 (32, 52) 41 (30, 50) 0.12 b
Diabetes duration (years) 20 (11, 30; 1–55) 21 (11–32) 19 (11, 29) 0.26 b
WC (meters) 0.88 (0.82, 0.95; 0.65–1.33) 0.79 (0.75, 0.90; 0.63–1.25)
Abdominal obesity c 49 (17) 13 (8) 36 (29) < 0.001
General obesity d 34 (12) 11 (7) 23 (18) 0.005
HbA1c > 52 mmol/mol (>  6.9%) 230 (81) 130 (82) 100 (80) 0.76
HbA1c > 70 mmol/mol (>  8.6%) 39 (24) 39 (24) 39 (31) 0.23
TC (mmol/l) 4.6 (4.1, 5.2; 2.1–10.9) 4.5 (4.0, 5.1) 4.7 (4.1, 5.4) 0.069 b
High TC (> 4.5 mmol/l) 149 (52) 78 (49) 71 (57) 0.23
LDL (mmol/l) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3; 0.6–8.3) 2.8 (2.4, 3.3) 2.9 (2.4, 3.4) 0.51 b
High LDL (> 2.5 mmol/l) 182 (64) 102 (64) 80 (64) > 0.99
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 0.9 (0.7, 1.3; 0.6–5.9) 0.9 (0.7, 1.3) 0.8 (0.6, 1.3) 0.47 b
High triglycerides (≥ 1.7 mmol/l) 34 (12) 16 (10) 18 (14) 0.28
HDL (mmol/l) 1.5 (1.3, 1.8; 0.8–2.7) 1.4 (1.2, 1.7) 1.6 (1.4, 1.8) 0.002 b
Low HDL (M/W: < 1.04/< 1.29 mmol/l/) 32 (11) 17 (11) 15 (12) 0.85
Hs-CRP e (mg/l) 0.6 (0.3, 1.7; 0.03–8.9) 0.5 (0.2, 1.4) 0.9 (0.4, 2.5) 0.008 b
SBP f (mm Hg) 120 (111, 130; 100–160) 125 (120, 130) 120 (110, 130) < 0.001 b
High SBP f (> 130 mmHg) 100 (35) 67 (42) 33 (26) 0.006
DBP h (mm Hg) 70 (70, 75; 55–100) 70 (70, 80) 70 (65, 75) < 0.001 b
High DBP g (>  80 mmHg) 13 (5) 10 (6) 3 (2) 0.16
Hypoglycemia (severe episodes) 13 (5%) 7 (4) 6 (5) > 0.99
Smoking h 28 (10) 18 (12) 10 (8) 0.42
Physical inactivity h (<  1/week) 31 (11) 18 (12) 13 (11) 0.85
CV i complications 10 (4) 6 (4) 4 (3) > 0.99
LLD j 133 (47) 77 (48) 56 (45) 0.55
AHD k 95 (34) 61 (38) 34 (27) 0.057
MDII l and OAD m 17 (6) 6 (4) 11 (9) 0.15
CSII n 26 (9) 13 (8) 13 (10)
MDII l 241 (85) 140 (88) 101 (81)
Reached all treatment targets o 19 (7) 11 (7) 8 (6) > 0.99
  1. Data are n (%) or median (q1, q3; min-max)
  2. a Fisher’s exact test unless otherwise indicated. b Mann-Whitney U test. c WC: men/women ≥1.02/≥0.88 m. d BMI ≥30 kg/m2. e N = 171, missing values for men/women: n = 54/59. f Systolic blood pressure. g Diastolic blood pressure. h Missing values men/women: n = 6/6. i Cardiovascular. j Lipid-lowering drugs. k Anti-hypertensive drugs. l Multiple daily insulin injections. m Oral antidiabetic drugs. n Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion. o Blood pressure ≤ 130/≤ 80, TC ≤ 4.5, LDL ≤ 2.5 and HbA1c ≤ 52