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Table 1 The characteristics of the participants in the study and associations with dysbiosis

From: Separating “good” from “bad” faecal dysbiosis – evidence from two cross-sectional studies

Participants’ characteristicsa Dysbiosis Dysbiosis Association with DI b Association with ADI b
Yes (no 59) No (31) p-values   
Gender (female/male) 49 (83%) / 10 (17%) 27 (87%) / 4 (13%) 0.76 (1) 2.9 (1.3) / 3.4 (1.5); p = 0.17 (2) −0.9 (2.8) / −0.5 (2.7); p = 0.66 (2)
Age (years) 44.0 (8.6) 46.0 (8.6) 0.31 (2) r = −0.078; p = 0.47 r = −0.375; p < 0.001
Body weight (kg) 120.5 (15.2) 122.1 (18.3) 0.66(2) r = −0.064; p = 0.55 r = 0.009; p = 0.93
BMI (kg/m2) 42.1 (3.7) 41.2 (3.2) 0.30 (2) r = 0.022; p = 0.84 r = −0.186; p = 0.08
Smoking (never/previously /daily) 19 (32%) / 31 (53%) / 9 (15%) 17 (55%) / 12 (39%) / 2 (6%) 0.046 (3) r = 0.195; p = 0.07 r = −0.230; p = 0.030
Coffee (cups/day) 2.6 (2.3) 3.5 (2.4) 0.08 (2) rho = −0.240; p = 0.026 rho = 0.163; p = 0.13
Food intolerance (65) 33/43 (77%) 17/22 (77%) 1.00 (1) 3.0 (1.3) / 3.0 (1.5); p = 0.95 (2) −1.1 (2.5) / −1.7 (3.0); p = 0.45 (2)
Diabetes (87) 18/56 (32%) 2/31 (7%) 0.007 (1) 3.7 (1.1) / 2.8 (1.3); p = 0.005(2) 0.5 (3.3) / −1.1 (2.5); p = 0.057 (2)
Hypothyreosis (86) 7/56 (13%) 3/30 (10%) 1.00 (1) 3.5 (1.3) / 2.9 (1.3); p = 0.19 (2) −0.1 (2.8) / −0.8 (2.8); p = 0.46 (2)
IBS (88) 17/59 (29%) 8/29 (28% 1.00 (1) 3.1 (1.3) / 3.0 (1.4); p = 0.60 −1.6 (2.8) / −0.4 (2.7); p = 0.063 (2)
IBSSS (86) 120 (0–389) 99 (0–339) 0.43 (4) rho = 0.110; p = 0.31 rho = −0.304; p = 0.004
Metformin 15/59 (25%) 1/31 (3%) 0.009 (1) 3.9 (1.0) / 2.8 (1.3); p = 0.002(2) 1.1 (3.1) / −1.2 (2.5); p = 0.002(2)
Thyroxin (89) 5 / 59 (9%) 2/30 (7%) 1.00 (1) 3.6 (1.3) / 2.9 (1.3); p = 0.23 (2) 0.1 (2.9) / −0.9 (2.8); p = 0.33 (2)
Statins (88) 8 / 58 (14%) 5 / 13 (17%) 0.76 (1) 2.5 (1.3) / 3.1 (1.3); p = 0.19 (2) −0.3 (2.3) / −0.9 (2.8); p = 0.47 (2)
CRP (88) 6 (0–27) 5 (1–28) 0.34 (4) rho = 0.076; p = 0.48 rho = −0.034; p = 0.75
Zonulin (ng/ml) (85) 71 (36) 60 (30) 0.14 (2) r = 0.179; p = 0.10 r = −0.125; p = 0.25
Total energy (kJ) 10,387 (3875) 10,777 (4324) 0.66 (2) r = −0.044; p = 0.68 r = −0.236; p = 0.025
Water (unit) 44 (21) 42 (19) 0.65 (2) r = 0.030; p = 0.78 r = −0.251; p = 0.017
Carb. beverages w/ sugar (unitc) 0.0 (0–7.9) 0 (0–2.6) 0.99 (4) rho = −0.016; p = 0.89 rho = −0.220; p = 0.037
Total NNS (unitc) 4.9 (0–43) 1 (0–22) 0.002 (4) rho = 0.387; p < 0.001 rho = −0.353; p = 0.001
Carb. beverages w/NNS (unitc) 1.1 (0–40) 0 (0–20) 0.002 (4) rho = 0.378; p < 0.001 rho = −0.268; p = 0.011
Non-carb. Beverages w/NNS (unitc) 0.4 (0–32) 0 (0–8) 0.026 (4) rho = 0.270; p = 0.010 rho = −0.240; p = 0.023
Coffee/tea w/NNS (unitc) 0.0 (0–27) 0 (0–14) 0.73 (4) rho = −0.047; p = 0.66 rho = −0.151; p = 0.16
Protein (g/day) 110 (36) 110 (36) 0.94 (2) rho = −0.053; p = 0.62 rho = −0.156; p = 0.14
Fat (g/day) 95 (42) 103 (56) 0.45 (2) rho = −0.048; p = 0.66 rho = −0.235; p = 0.026
Carbohydrates (g/day) 273 (119) 280 (150) 0.80 (2) rho = 0.016; p = 0.88 rho = −0.200; p = 0.058
Starch (g/day) 133 (54) 131 (46) 0.83 (2) rho = 0.035; p = 0.74 rho = −0.263; p = 0.012
Sugar (g/day) 25 (1–268) 32 (5–632) 0.99 rho = 0.012; p = 0.91 rho = −0.221; p = 0.037
  1. DI Dysbiosis Index, ADI Alternative Dysbiosis Index, NNS Non-Nutritive Sweeteners. The results are given as mean (SD); median (range); number (%). aThe number of subjects is given in brackets if less than 90. bThe order of the results are yes/no.c One unit is 100 ml beverages with NNS or 2 tablets NNS for coffee/tea
  2. (1): Fisher’s exact test; (2) t-test; (3) chi-square, linear-by-linear; (4) Exact Mann-Whitney; rho: Spearman’s rho; r = Pearson Correlation test
  3. Italicized p-values are statistically significant