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Table 3 Factors associated with abdominal obesity among adults in Uganda, STEPS survey 2014

From: Prevalence and correlates of abdominal obesity among adults in Uganda: findings from a national cross-sectional, population based survey 2014

Variable Males Females Males and Females
Crude PRRa [95% CI] Adjusted PRR [95% CI]* Crude PRR [95% CI] Adjusted PRR [95% CI]** Crude PRR [95% CI] Adjusted PRR [95% CI]***
Sex
 Males 1.0 1.0
 Females 8.70 [6.19–12.22] 7.59 [5.58–10.33]
Age
 18–24 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 25–34 0.56 [0.21–1.49] 0.76 [0.29–1.97] 1.04 [0.80–1.34] 0.97 [0.76–1.25] 1.00 [0.78–1.28] 0.97 [0.76–1.25]
 35–44 0.35 [0.13–0.99] 1.03 [0.40–2.63] 1.11 [0.85–1.48] 1.08 [0.82–1.42] 1.04 [0.80–1.35] 1.05 [0.81–1.36]
 45–54 0.42 [0.12–1.43] 0.64 [0.22–1.86] 0.92 [0.67–1.26] 0.90 [0.66–1.23] 0.85 [0.62–1.16] 0.86 [0.63–1.17]
 55–64 0.27 [0.07–1.08] 0.62 [0.20–1.91] 1.08 [0.75–1.57] 1.02 [0.72–1.46] 0.97 [0.68–1.39] 0.94 [0.66–1.33]
  ≥ 65 0.39 [0.05–2.89] 0.58 [0.12–2.77] 1.23 [0.79–1.91] 1.22 [0.84–1.78] 1.11 [0.71–1.73] 1.11 [0.75–1.65]
Marital status
 Never married 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Married/Cohabiting 2.01 [0.90–4.51] 1.16 [0.59–2.27] 2.03 [1.31–3.15] 2.08 [1.39–3.13] 1.85 [1.27–2.70] 1.82 [1.29–2.57]
 Other 1.56 [0.52–4.68] 0.68 [0.26–1.82] 1.83 [1.14–2.91] 1.92 [1.25–2.94] 1.67 [1.11–2.50] 1.69 [1.17–2.46]
Level of education
 No formal schooling 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Primary 0.57 [0.16–2.03] 0.60 [0.24–1.50] 1.18 [0.95–1.47] 1.18 [0.95–1.46] 1.15 [0.91–1.46] 1.17 [0.94–1.46]
 Secondary 1.14 [0.34–3.76 1.08 [0.42–2.81] 1.44 [1.13–1.83] 1.40 [1.12–1.75] 1.42 [1.10–1.84] 1.42 [1.12–1.78]
 University or higher 0.71 [0.19–2.68] 0.92 [0.31–2.70] 1.18 [0.82–1.68] 1.12 [0.78–1.60] 1.15 [0.80–1.66] 1.19 [0.84–1.67]
Region of residence
 Eastern 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Central 0.64 [0.22–1.85] 0.54 [0.22–1.31] 0.99 [0.76–1.28] 0.93 [0.72–1.20] 0.96 [0.75–1.23] 0.87 [0.69–1.11]
 Northern 1.26 [0.54–2.89] 0.85 [0.37–1.98] 1.15 [0.92–1.44] 1.08 [0.86–1.36] 1.13 [0.89–1.44] 1.03 [0.82–1.30]
 Western 0.86 [0.35–2.11] 0.51 [0.20–1.31] 1.23 [0.99–1.52] 1.18 [0.96–1.45] 1.19 [0.96–1.48] 1.15 [0.94–1.41]
Rural-urban residence
 Rural 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Urban 1.47 [0.68–3.18] 1.80 [0.98–3.31] 1.33 [1.10–1.60] 1.29 [1.09–1.54] 1.31 [1.08–1.58] 1.29 [1.09–1.53]
Employment
 Unemployed 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Employed 0.72 [0.33–1.54] 0.93 [0.45–1.91] 1.25 [1.05–1.49] 1.22 [1.04–1.43] 1.22 [1.01–1.47] 1.18 [0.99–1.40]
Fruit & Veg servings/ day
  ≥ 5 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 1–4 0.69 [0.32–1.47] 0.85 [0.38–1.91] 0.92 [0.75–1.13] 0.94 [0.77–1.15] 0.90 [0.73–1.12] 0.93 [0.75–1.15]
Met WHO recommendation for physical activity
 Yes 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 No 1.76 [0.28–10.92] 1.55 [0.37–6.42] 1.03 [0.66–1.61] 0.92 [0.59–1.45] 1.05 [0.70–1.59] 0.90 [0.59–1.35]
Alcohol use in standard drinks per occasion
 Never 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Ever or ≤ 6 1.44 [0.74–2.78] 0.89 [0.45–1.75] 1.00 [0.84–1.19] 0.97 [0.82–1.16] 1.01 [0.85–1.21] 0.99 [0.83–1.17]
  > 6 1.53 [0.61–3.85] 1.07 [0.47–2.45] 1.15 [0.81–1.64] 1.12 [0.79–1.59] 1.19 [0.85–1.65] 1.20 [0.87–1.66]
Hypertensive
 No 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 Yes 8.85 [4.19–18.71] 10.15 [4.78–21.53] 1.59 [1.33–1.99] 1.60 [1.36–1.89] 1.79 [1.52–2.12] 1.83 [1.57–2.14]
FPG (mmol/L)
  < 6.1 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0
 6.1–6.9 3.98 [1.14–13.91] 2.52 [0.80–8.00] 0.98 [0.55–1.78] 0.99 [0.56–1.78] 1.18 [0.72–1.95] 1.22 [0.74–2.01]
  > 7.0, or on DM Rx 2.24 [1.05–4.76] 2.45 [1.32–4.54] 1.14 [0.88–1.48] 1.13 [0.88–1.45] 1.22 [0.94–1.59] 1.24 [0.96–1.60]
  1. aPrevalence Rate Ratio
  2. *Adjusted for blood pressure and FPG
  3. **Adjusted for marital status, level of education, urban/rural residence, employment status and blood pressure
  4. ***Adjusted for sex, marital status, level of education, urban/rural residence and blood pressure