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Table 1 Distribution of select maternal and infant characteristics, n (%)

From: Associations between gestational weight gain and rate of infancy weight gain in Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico WIC participants

  Total control
(n = 100)
Final analysis
(n = 82)
Lost to follow-up (n = 18) p-value
Site 0.037
 Hawai‘i 50 (50.0) 37 (45.1) 13 (72.2)  
 Puerto Rico 50 (50.0) 45 (54.9) 5 (27.8)  
Maternal factors
Pregravid BMI (mean [SD]) 26.1 [6.9] 26.3 [7.0] 24.8 [6.6] 0.340
 Underweight or normal 56 (56.0) 44 (53.7) 12 (66.7)  
 Overweight or obese 44 (44.0) 38 (46.3) 6 (33.3)  
Age (mean [SD]) 27.0 [5.0] 26.9 [4.7] 27.4 [6.5] 0.958
 18–24 years 33 (33.0) 27 (32.9) 6 (33.3)  
 25–31 years 47 (47.0) 39 (47.6) 8 (44.4)  
 32–39 years 20 (20.0) 16 (19.5) 4 (22.2)  
Racea/ethnicity
 Hispanic 60 (60.0) 51 (62.2) 9 (56.3) 0.655
 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 17 (17.0) 12 (14.6) 5 (27.8) 0.179
 Asian 20 (20.0) 14 (17.1) 6 (33.3) 0.118
 American Indian or Alaska Native 4 (4.0) 3 (3.7) 1 (5.6) 0.555
 Black or African American 12 (12.0) 11 (13.4) 1 (5.6) 0.689
 White 45 (45.0) 40 (48.8) 5 (27.8) 0.105
Education 0.019
 Less than college 42 (42.0) 31 (37.8) 11 (61.1)  
 Some college 22 (22.0) 22 (26.8) 0 (0)  
 College degree or higher 36 (36.0) 29 (35.4) 7 (38.9)  
Parity 0.112
 1 38 (38.0) 32 (39.0) 6 (33.3)  
 2 43 (43.0) 34 (41.5) 9 (50.0)  
 3 or 4 19 (19.0) 16 (19.5) 3 (16.7)  
Use of prenatal vitamins 98 (98.0) 82 (100.0) 16 (88.9) 0.031b
Pregnancy complications 41 (41.0) 31 (37.8) 10 (55.6) 0.166
Took vitamins while breastfeeding 53 (53.0) 42 (51.2) 11 (68.8) 0.319
Gestational age (weeks; mean [SD]) 38.9 [1.0] 38.9 [1.0] 38.9 [1.1] 0.844
GWG (kg; mean [SD]) 12.7 [5.5] 12.6 [5.5] 13.0 [5.9] 0.759
Infant factors
 Male 52 (52.0) 40 (48.8) 12 (66.7) 0.169
 Female 48 (48.0) 42 (51.2) 6 (33.3)  
Up-to-date with vaccinations 81 (81.0) 65 (79.3) 16 (88.9) 0.512
  1. Note: Column percentages; p-value was obtained from comparison analysis between final analysis vs lost to follow-up. For categorical variables, chi-square tests or Fisher exact tests were conducted and two-sample t-tests were conducted for continuous variables
  2. aIncludes all races for mixed participants