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Table 1 Respondent characteristics and sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption by demographic subgroup (N = 2372)

From: Who drinks sugar sweetened beverages and juice? An Australian population study of behaviour, awareness and attitudes

  Overall sample SSB consumption in past week by demographic subgroupa Chi-square tests
  None   Moderate (1–6 times) Frequent (7+ times)   Pearson Trendf
% N %   %   %   N P-value P-value
SSB consumption in past weeke 100.0 2732 48.8   34.7   16.0     
Demographics
Gender          2719 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Male 49.2 1337 38.4 40.8 20.8    
 Female 50.8 1382 59.3 29.2 11.4    
Age (years)          2717 < 0.001 < 0.001
 15–24 16.0 430 27.4 50.0 22.6    
 25–44 32.1 872 38.6 39.8 21.6    
 45–64 31.6 861 54.5 32.9   12.7    
 65 and over 20.3 554 73.8 18.8 7.4    
Highest qualificationb          2716 < 0.001 < 0.001
 High School or less 39.4 1069 45.0 35.3   19.7    
 Vocational 35.8 977 47.5   34.7   17.8     
 University 24.7 670 57.6 34.8   7.6    
Disadvantage quintile          2719 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Quintile 1 (most disadvantaged) 23.2 628 46.2   32.2   21.7    
 Quintile 2 16.2 441 44.7 34.9   20.4    
 Quintile 3 20.1 548 47.6   35.8   16.6     
 Quintile 4 21.1 577 50.8   39.3 9.9    
 Quintile 5 (least disadvantaged) 19.3 525 55.8 32.4   11.8    
Remoteness          2721 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Metropolitan 74.8 2034 49.9   35.9   14.2    
 Inner Regional 9.5 259 48.3   37.5   14.3     
 Outer Regional 13.4 366 47.0   27.9 25.1    
 Remote/very remote 2.3 62 35.5 32.3   32.3    
Body Mass Indexd          2710 0.719 0.494
 Underweight or healthy 38.6 1048 49.0   35.3   15.6     
 Overweight 29.9 814 47.5   35.9   16.6     
 Obese 21.0 572 52.1   32.2   15.7     
 Don’t know either height or weight 10.1 276 47.1   35.9   17.0     
Behavioural risk factors
Physical activity (past week)c          2718 < 0.001 0.071
 None 18.7 509 47.5   32.0   20.4    
 1 to 6 days 58.0 1578 47.7   38.7 13.7    
 Everyday 23.1 631 53.7 27.9 18.4     
Fast food consumption (past week)b         2718 < 0.001 < 0.001
 None 52.4 1430 64.3 28.0 7.7    
 Once 29.2 790 42.2 43.0 14.8     
 Two or more times 18.3 498 16.3 41.8 42.0    
100% fruit juice consumption (past week)d          2712 < 0.001 0.007
 None 64.7 1764 52.3 31.3 16.4     
 One or more times 35.0 948 43.2 41.5 15.3     
Smoking status          2718 < 0.001 < 0.001
 Current smoker 15.3 417 30.7 31.2   38.1    
Ex-smoker 28.9 789 56.9 29.8 13.3    
Never smoked 55.7 1512 50.0   38.6 11.4    
Attitudes and knowledge
Teaspoons of sugar in can of soft drinkc          2713 < 0.001 0.093
 Underestimate 0 to 7 29.8 809 42.4 38.6 19.0    
 Approx correct 8 to 12g 33.5 910 48.6   37.1   14.3     
 Overestimate 13 to 99 20.9 568 52.5   35.7   11.8    
 Don’t know 15.6 426 58.0 22.5 19.5    
Diet soft drinks versus SSBsb          2718 0.002 0.436
 More healthy 17.3 473 52.9   33.0   14.2     
 Less healthy 26.8 727 44.4 35.2   20.4    
 The same 50.8 1384 49.3   36.1   14.6    
 Don’t know 4.9 134 57.5 28.4   14.2     
100% fruit juice versus SSBsb         2717 < 0.001 < 0.001
 More sugar 8.6 234 47.0   31.6   21.4    
 Less sugar 40.8 1111 45.4 36.3   18.4    
 The sameg 42.5 1156 52.2 35.2   12.6    
 Don’t know 8.1 216 53.7   29.6   16.7     
Awareness of illnesses/health effects related to SSB consumption          2719 < 0.001 < 0.001
Weight gain
 No 57.5 1566 45.7 36.7 17.7    
 Yesg 42.5 1153 53.7 32.5 13.8    
Diabetes          2719 < 0.001 < 0.001
 No 39.0 1061 44.8 34.0   21.2    
 Yesg 61.0 1658 51.8 35.5   12.7    
Tooth decay          2719 0.601 0.761
 No 70.9 1933 49.5   34.4   16.2     
 Yesg 29.1 786 48.0   36.4   15.6     
Heart disease          2718 0.022 0.036
 No 85.1 2314 48.6   34.5   16.9    
 Yes 14.9 404 51.5   37.1   11.4    
  1. Note: Adjusted standardised residuals used to detect statistical significance within cells of Pearson’s chi-square results (represented as arrows); Relative to percentages for overall SSB consumption in the past week, cells with percentages greater than expected = ↑ and cells with values lower than expected = ↓ at the p < 0.05 level
  2. aExcluding ‘not stated’ response category; bNot stated = 0.1%, cnot stated = 0.2%, dnot stated = 0.3%, enot stated = 0.5%
  3. fMantel-Haenszel test of linear trends; gMost correct answer based on current evidence