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Table 2 Change in Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, Sleep Disturbance, and Body Weight across Time

From: Sleep and weight loss in low-income overweight or obese postpartum women

  Mean ± SD or N (%) P-value$
T1 (N = 569) T2 (N = 367) T3 (N = 332)
Sleep Duration
 < 7 h 457 (80.32%) 249 (73.67%) 230 (73.95%) 0.048
 ≥ 7 h 112 (19.68) 89 (26.33%) 81 (26.05%)  
 Sleep qualitya 1.44 ± 0.78 1.35 ± 0.82 1.30 ± 0.75 0.003
 Sleep disturbanceb 1.42 ± 0.58 1.26 ± 0.67 1.21 ± 0.67 < 0.001
 Weight 190.8 ± 29.85 188.5 ± 31.22 187.9 ± 32.07 0.389
 Weight change from T1 n/a −.08 ± 9.72 −.72 ± 12.46 0.218
 % Weight change from T1 n/a −0.1% ± 5.1% −0.4% ± 6.7% 0.253
Having ≥ 5% weight loss from T1
 No n/a 300 (87.4%) 246 (76.9%) 0.001
 Yes n/a 43 (12.5%) 74 (23.1%)  
  1. T1: baseline, T2: 4 months from T1, T3: 7 months from T1. aThe lower score, the better sleep quality. bThe higher score, the more sleep disturbance
  2. $P-values were derived using mixed-effects linear regression modeling for continuous variables (sleep quality, sleep disturbance, weight, weight change from T1, and % weight change from T1) and using mixed-effects logistic regression for categorical variables (sleep duration and having ≥5% weight loss from T1). We did not present coefficient or odds ratio estimates from the regression models since the descriptive statistics (Mean ± SD and %) in the table are more straightforward to illustrate the extent of change across time