Skip to main content

Table 3 Measurement Description

From: Design and methods of the Healthy Kids & Families study: a parent-focused community health worker-delivered childhood obesity prevention intervention

Variable Measure Sample item
Anthropometric and Health-related Measures
BMI From weight measured with digital Tanita BWB- 800 scale and height measured with SECA 213 stadiometer, with light clothing and no shoes.
• Child BMI score is calculated as BMIz=[(BMIM)L−1] ÷ (L × S) [64]
• Parent BMI calculated as weight (kg)/height(meters) [62].
Waist circumference Child and parent
• Waist circumference measured twice (and averaged) with a non-stretchable measuring tape, following a standardized protocol [65].
Blood pressure • Blood pressure measured three times with a DinamapPro100, following a consistent protocol of sitting for 10 min before the first measure, and waiting at least 1 min in between each measure [66].  
Medications Child and parent: Prescription and non-prescription medications and their dosage recorded by staff at study visits.  
Healthcare utilization and health conditions • Child and parent health care utilization assessed by 12-item investigator developed survey.
• General health perception assessed by 1-item from the RAND survey [67].
• Selected health conditions assessed by 28-item investigator-developed survey.
Does your child have a pediatrician, primary health care provider or a doctor?
Do you have a history of high blood sugar or diabetes?
Behavioral Measures
Physical activity and sedentariness Child and parent
• # Days > 60 mins physical activity assessed by 1 item from the MA: Parent Child Longitudinal Cohort Survey (MA CORD [68] (original from Youth Risk Behavioral Study [69].
• General moderate to vigorous physical activity levels during the school year assessed via a 7-day recall of activities modeled after items 1 and 9 of the Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ-C) [70, 71].
• Walking for transportation assessed by a 4-item investigator-developed survey (parent survey included additional question on walking to work).
• Minutes and intensity of physical activity/day assessed via accelerometry (ActiGraph GT 3.0) [72, 73].
• Sedentary behavior assessed by 2-item investigator-developed survey.
During the past 7 days, on how many days was your child active for at least 60 min a day?
During the past week, did you walk for exercise?
If yes, how much time did you walk for exercise on:
Monday-Friday, hours/minutes
Diet Child and parent
• Vegetables, fruit, and fast food consumption assessed by 3-items adapted from the MA CORD study [68].
• Snacks eaten at home assessed by the 10-item Beverage and Snack Questionnaire II [74].
• Beverage consumption assessed by 25 items modified from the Beverage Intake Questionnaire [75]. The survey measure asked about milk, soda and other beverages and parents were asked about alcoholic beverages.
How often did you usually eat [name of food] in the past month?
How many times did you eat regular chips when you were at home this past week?
How often did you drink whole milk in the past month?
How much did you typically drink each time?
Tobacco Parent
• Tobacco use assessed by 2-items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [76] and 2-items from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Questionnaire [77]
Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes in your entire life?
Mobility patterns Child and parent
• Utilization of community resources and mobility patterns were assessed by a GPS unit [78]
Demographic and Other Characteristics
  Child and parent
• Demographics assessed by 11-items from the MA CORD study about: race, ethnicity, nativity, marital status (parent), pregnancy status (parent), language, and income [68].
• Gender assessed by 1-item on parent and child gender from We Heart Health Literacy [79].
• Language, years in the US, education, employment, health insurance, housing and living arrangements, missed work/school, child grade and school, use of technology, assessed by investigator-developed items.
• Literacy assessed by 1-item from Chew et al. [80], and Wallace et al. [81].
• Food insecurity assessed by 1-item from the MA CORD study (parent) [68] (originally from Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System) [82].
• Child education-related needs assessed by 2-item investigator-developed survey
• Perceptions (parent) of neighborhood characteristics that could interfere with walking and biking assessed by 4-item investigator-developed survey
• Access to fruits and vegetables assessed by 2-items from Neighborhood Scales [83]
What languages do you speak?
Did you attend elementary or grade school at all, either here or in another country?
How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?
Parent Psychosocial Measures
Weight management literacy • Knowledge of weight management assessed by 29-item scale developed by investigators. Drinking water instead of juice can help a person lose weight.
attitudes and perceptions
• Body image assessed by 4-item survey developed by Collins [84]
• Weight satisfaction assessed by 5-item investigator-developed survey
• Parent description of child weight assessed by 1-item survey adapted from MA CORD Study [68].
• Readiness for weight loss effort (parent) assessed by 12-item investigator-developed survey [85].
Please point to the picture that shows the way you want to look.
How satisfied are you with your weight?
In the past six months, have you made a serious attempt to avoid gaining weight?
How would you describe your child’s weight? Would you say that he or she is...
Social norms for lifestyle behaviors and weight • Social norms for diet, physical activity, screen use and bed time assessed by 10-item survey adapted from the MA CORD study [68].
• Social norms for healthy weight assessed by investigator-developed item.
How many of the people you know give children snacks any time they ask?
Self-efficacy • Self-efficacy for positive parenting assessed by 8-item investigator-developed survey. How confident are you in your ability to teach your child to solve conflicts?
Engagement • Engagement assessed by 1-item from the Harvard Family Research Project [86]
• Engagement with other parents assessed by 1-item investigator-initiated survey
How often do you meet in person with teachers at your child’s school?
Effective parenting skills • Effective parenting assessed by 9-items adapted from the 42-item Alabama Parenting Questionnaire [87]. How often do you let [child’s name] know when he/she is doing a good job with something?
Depression Symptoms • Depression symptoms assessed by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD) [88]. How often have you felt depressed during the past week.
Parent-reported Child Behaviors and Emotions
Child behavior • Child behavior assessed by 6-items modeled after selected content adapted from the 36-item Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory [89]. How often does [child’s name] throw a fit, or get very angry?
Emotional regulation • Emotional regulation assessed by 2-item investigator-developed survey. How often does [child’s name] manage his or her emotions in a way that is appropriate for his or her age?
Child body image • Body image assessed by 2-item survey developed by Collins [84] Point to the picture that shows the way you think is best for a child your age to look.
  1. All measures were adapted for verbal administration in English and Spanish.