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Table 3 Family Food Environment factor differences by child BMI category (MANOVA)

From: Family food environment factors associated with obesity outcomes in early childhood

Family Food Environment Factors* Normal Weight (n = 586)
Means (SD)
Overweight (n = 109)
Means (SD)
Obese
(n = 62)
Means (SD)
Sig. (p value) Partial n2
Factor 1: Negative feeding strategies1 −0.021 (1.0) − 0.056 (0.95) 0.296 (0.98) 0.046 0.008
Factor 2: Negative Nutrition Related Beliefs2 −0.065 (1.0) 0.239 (0.98) 0.196 (1.13) 0.004 0.015
Factor 3: High Resources3 −0.009 (1.0) 0.132 (0.87) −0.136 (1.15) 0.209 0.004
Factor 4: High Skill4 0.011 (0.99) −0.072 (1.05) 0.033 (1.03) 0.658 0.001
Factor 5: Health Focused Restriction5 −0.000 (1.02) −0.048 (0.97) 0.088 (0.87) 0.690 0.001
Factor 6: Family Meals6 −0.000 (1.00) 0.027 (0.97) −0.041 (1.01) 0.901 0.000
Factor 7: TV and Devices7 0.045 (1.01) −0.106 (1.03) − 0.238 (0.83) 0.049 0.008
Factor 8: Parent’s Nutrition Knowledge8 0.021 (0.98) 0.065 (1.05) −0.311 (1.02) 0.032 0.009
  1. *Factor characteristics:
  2. 1: Food as a reward for eating, Food as a reward for behaviour, Parent use of Persuasive feeding, Parent use of Overt restriction, Structured Meal setting,
  3. 2: Belief: Healthy Eating is expensive, Belief: It takes too long to prepare healthy food, Belief: Healthy Food doesn’t taste good, Availability of fruit and vegetables, Sufficient money to buy food each week (negatively loaded)
  4. 3: Suitable cooking facilities, Suitable food storage, Sufficient money to buy food each week
  5. 4: Parent’s shopping skills, Parent’s cooking skills, Availability of fruit and vegetables (negatively loaded)
  6. 5: Belief: Healthy eating is important, Parent use of Covert restriction, Parent use of Overt restriction, Structured Meal timing,
  7. 6: Single Family Meal, Structured Meal setting, Structured Meal timing (negatively loaded), Frequency of Family Meals per week, Family use of TV/devices during meals (negatively loaded)
  8. 7: Structured Meal timing (negatively loaded), Family use of TV/devices during meals, Child use of TV/devices during meals, Adult use of TV/devices during meals, Availability of fruit and vegetables
  9. 8: Parent use of Persuasive feeding (negatively loaded), Parent Total Nutrition Knowledge, Family use of TV/devices during meals (negatively loaded)