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Table 1 Study characteristics

From: Effectiveness of mobile electronic devices in weight loss among overweight and obese populations: a systematic review and meta-analysis

First author (Year) Study duration (months) Geographic location Population Primary outcome(s) Mobile electronic device used Description of intervention Description of control Results User feedback
Beasley (2008) [20] 1 United States Overweight/obese adults. BMI = 25 to 40 kg/m2 Change in mean weight (lbs.), change in waist circumference (inches), adherence to intervention Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) PDA based program DietMatePro. Used as an alternative to paper based records Paper diary Mean weight decrease of 3.5 (SD = 4.9) lbs in the EG compared to 2.9 (SD = 4.8) lbs in the CG. Waist circumference decreased by 1.0 (SD = 1.2) inch in the EG compared to 0.5 (SD = 1.5) inch in the CG. Adherence was higher among the EG (43%) compared to the CG (28%) N/A
Haapala (2009) [21] 12 Finland Healthy overweight adults (18 to 59 years of age). BMI = 27 to 43 kg/m2 Change in body weight (kg) and waist circumference (cm) Text messaging (Mobile Phone) Use of mobile phone-operated weight-loss program, Weight Balance®. Program based on sending of various daily text messages No intervention. Offered the studies weight-loss program free of charge after the 12-month study Mean weight decrease of 4.5 (SD = 5.0) kg in the EG compared to 1.1 (SD = 5.8) kg in the CG. Waist circumference decrease by 6.3 (SD = 5.3) cm in the EG compared to 2.4 (SD = 5.4) cm in the CG At 12 months, participants gave the program a score of 7.8 (0.8) on a user satisfaction scale from 4 to 10.
Patrick (2009) [22] 4 United States Overweight adults (25 to 55 years of age). BMI = 25 to 39.9 kg/m2 Weight change (kg) SMS & MMS messages (Mobile Phone) Personalized SMS and MMS messages sent 2 to 5 times daily, printed materials, and brief monthly phone calls from a health counselor Participants given monthly printed materials about weight control Mean weight decrease of 2.46 (SD = 3.68) kg in the EG compared to 0.47 (SD = 3.62) kg in the CG. At the end of the study, 22 of 24 (92%) of intervention participants said they would recommend the intervention for weight control to family and friends
Burke (2012) [23] 24 United States Healthy overweight/obese adults (≤59 years of age). BMI = 27 to 43 kg/m2 Percent weight change (kg) at 24 months, adherence to self-monitoring over time PDA PDA with DietMatePro© software for self-monitoring. Paper Diary and Nutritional reference book Mean weight decrease of 1.18 (SD = 8.78) kg in the EG compared to 1.77 (SD = 7.23) kg in the CG. Weight loss was greater for those who were more adherent N/A
Shapiro (2012) [25] 12 United States Overweight adults (21 to 65 years of age). BMI ≥ 25 to 39.9 kg/m2 Weight change (lbs), adherence to intervention and steps per day Text messaging (Mobile Phone) SMS and MMS messages sent 2 to 5 times daily and monthly e-newsletters Monthly e-newsletter Mean weight decrease of 3.64 (SD = 12.01) lbs in the EG compared to 2.27 (SD = 9.39) lbs in the CG. Text-messaging adherence was moderately strong (60 to 69%). Participants’ steps increased almost 3000 steps/day over time (p < 0.05) in the EG. Participants completed a survey assessing the program overall and its individual components. Likert rating scales were used: (e.g., ‘Please rate the SMS portion in enjoyability’ or ‘How likely would you be to refer the intervention to a friend?’ 0 = not at all, 5 = somewhat, 10 = extremely)
Carter (2013) [24] 6 United Kingdom Overweight adults (18 to 65 years of age). BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 Weight change (kg), change in body fat and adherence to intervention Smartphone app (Mobile Phone) MMM smartphone app for weight loss to be used on an Android operating system Paper Diary Mean weight decrease of 4.6 (SD = 5.20) kg in the EG compared to 2.9 (SD = 5.85) kg in the CG. Change in body fat was 1.3% (95% CI = −1.7 to −0.8) in the EG and 0.9% (95% CI = −1.5 to −0.4) in the CG N/A
  1. BMI: Body Mass Index. lbs: Pounds. Kg: Kilogram. SMS: Short Message Service. MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service. PDA: Personal Digital Assistant.