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Table 5 Mean difference in BMI z-score and 95% confidence intervals for each early life risk factors from regression models with interactions between ethnicity and each risk factor (White British and Pakistani only) fully adjusted model

From: The relationship between early life modifiable risk factors for childhood obesity, ethnicity and body mass index at age 3 years: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study

Risk factor Category White British (N = 382) Pakistani (N = 474) Interaction p-value
Mean differencea 95% CI Mean differencea 95% CI
Pregnancy risk factors
 Smoked during pregnancy No 0 - 0 - 0.12
Yes 0.37 (0.11, 0.62) −0.06 (−0.53, 0.42)  
 Gestational diabetes No 0 - 0 - 0.10
Yes 0.18 (−0.22, 0.58) −0.23 (−0.51, 0.05)  
 Maternal booking BMI Underweight/normal 0 - 0 - 0.51
Overweight 0.36 (0.11, 0.60) 0.18 (−0.04, 0.40)  
  Obese 0.34 (0.07, 0.61) 0.35 (0.08, 0.62)  
Postnatal risk factors
 Duration of any breastfeeding Never 0 - 0 - 0.03
1 day to 1 month 0.09 (−0.17, 0.34) 0.28 (0.02, 0.54)  
1 to 4 months −0.24 (−0.57, 0.09) 0.41 (0.13, 0.69)  
4+ months 0.00 (−0.31, 0.31) 0.15 (−0.11, 0.40)  
 Weaned <17 weeks No 0 - 0 - 0.33
Yes −0.09 (−0.32, 0.14) 0.08 (−0.17, 0.33)  
 Daily protein intake Per 1SD increase 0.04 (−0.18, 0.26) −0.09 (−0.29, 0.12) 0.41
 Daily total energy Per 1SD increase 0.05 (−0.17, 0.27) 0.08 (−0.13, 0.30) 0.83
 Caregivers feeding style Authoritative 0 - 0 - 0.98
Authoritarian −0.15 (−0.52, 0.21) −0.10 (−0.40, 0.20)  
Indulgent 0.08 (−0.24, 0.39) 0.15 (−0.17, 0.47)  
Uninvolved −0.05 (−0.44, 0.35) −0.04 (−0.38, 0.30)  
 Parental self-efficacy High 0 - 0 - 0.73
Lower scores (bottom quintile) −0.25 (−0.53, 0.04) −0.18 (−0.43, 0.06)  
 Parental warmth High 0 - 0 - 0.73
Lower scores (bottom quintile) 0.14 (−0.12, 0.41) 0.20 (−0.01, 0.42)  
 Hostile parenting Low 0 - 0 - 0.42
Higher scores (top quintile) 0.06 (−0.21, 0.32) 0.20 (−0.04, 0.44)  
 Infant TV viewing time None 0 - 0 - 0.56
0-1 hour 0.13 (−0.32, 0.57) −0.26 (−0.64, 0.12)  
1-2 hours 0.23 (−0.23, 0.70) 0.02 (−0.38, 0.42)  
>2 hours 0.25 (−0.24, 0.74) −0.05 (−0.43, 0.33)  
 Maternal TV viewing time 0-2 hour 0 - 0 - 0.10
2-4 hour 0.09 (−0.16, 0.33) −0.22 (−0.44, −0.01)  
>4 hour −0.43 (−0.77, −0.09) −0.40 (−0.70, −0.10)  
 Infant sleep duration <11 hours 0.08 (−0.23, 0.39) 0.12 (−0.16, 0.39) 0.97
11-12 Hours 0.00 (−0.27, 0.28) 0.09 (−0.16, 0.35)  
12-13 Hours 0 - 0 -  
13+ hours −0.05 (−0.35, 0.25) 0.03 (−0.23, 0.28)  
 Maternal activity level Sedentary 0 - 0 - 0.75
Insufficiently active 0.18 (−0.22, 0.58) 0.02 (−0.22, 0.26)  
Sufficiently active 0.16 (−0.23, 0.55) 0.09 (−0.19, 0.38)  
  1. aAdjusted for all risk factors and infant sex, maternal age, maternal highest educational qualification, parity, birthweight, gestational age at delivery and mode of delivery.