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Table 1 Summary of included articles and selected

From: A meta-analysis of weight gain in first year university students: is freshman 15 a myth?

          Included in Analyses
Author Year Country Length (Mths) Sample Size Composition Quality (on 7) Mean WG (kg)d Mean WG in Weight Gainers (kg) 1a 1b 2a 2b 2c 3
Hodge et al. [9] 1993 US 6 61 W 5 0.39 3.2    X    
Megel et al. [10] 1994 US 7 57 W 4 1.11     X    
Cooley and Toray [12] 2001 US 7 104 W 4 2.05     X    
Graham and Jones [14] 2002 US 8 49 W/M 6 −0.68 2.09    X    
Anderson et al. [6] 2003 US 3 135 W/M 4 1.3    X X    
Levitsky et al. [16] 2004 US 2.76 60 W/M 6 1.9b (2.4)   X X     
Butler et al. [15] 2004 US 4.6 54 W 5 0.93    X     
Morrow et al. [20] 2006 US 6.7 137 W 5 1.1b (2.6)   X X     X
Hoffman et al. [18] 2006 US 7 67 W/M 5 1.3b (4.0) 3.1b (2.4) X X X X   X
Hajhosseini et al. [19] 2006 US 3.68 27 W/M 4 1.36b (0.32)   X X X    
Lowe et al. [22] 2006 US 8 69 W 5 2.08     X    
Levitsky et al. (a) [21] 2006 US 2.76 15 W 5 3.1b (2.0)   X X X    X
Levitsky et al. (b) [21] 2006 US 2.76 16 W 5 2b (2.6)   X X     X
Kasparek et al. [29] 2008 US 6 193 W/M 4 1.15 3.22   X X    
Pliner and Saunders [30] 2008 Can. 5 72 W/M 7 1.5        
Edmonds et al. [33] 2008 Can. 6 116 W 6 2.4c (3.0)   X X     X
Delinsky and Wilson [31] 2008 US 7 149 W 3 1.53b (3.4) 3.3b (2.7) X X X X   X
Wengreen and Moncur [38] 2009 US 4 159 W/M 6 1.51b (2.3) 4.52b (1.6) X X X X   
Pullman et al. [55] 2009 Can. 7 108 M 4 3 c (4.1)   X X     X
Mifsud et al. [34] 2009 Can. 6 29 W/M 5 0.79c (2.3)   X X     X
Provencher et al. [35] 2009 Can. 7 1323 W/M 5 1.47c(4.1)   X X    X X
Lloyd-Richardson et al. (study 2) [37] 2009 US 8 326 W/M 6 1.91c (2.3)   X X X    
Gropper et al. [32] 2009 US 7 214 W/M 6 1.18b (2.4) 2.72b (2.4) X X X X X X
Gow et al. [39] 2010 US 1.38 40 W/M 5 0.47b (1.6)   X X     
Vella-zarb and Elgar [41] 2010 Can. 2.51 91 W/M 7 0.89b (3.3)   X X     X
Gillen and Lefkovitz [42] 2011 US 7a 390 W/M 5 1.18 3.3b (2.6)    X X X  
Kapinos and Yakusheva [44] 2011 US 7 388 W/M 5 1.02c (3.9)   X X     
Webb [47] 2012 US 4 83 W 5 1.2b (2.9)   X X     X
Finlayson et al. [46] 2012 UK 3a 120 W/M 6 0.23b (2.1)   X X     X
Culnan et al. [51] 2013 US 1.83 54 W/M 4 0.79b (2.2)   X X     
Deliens et al. [52] 2013 Belg. 4 101 W/M 6 0.97c (2.0)   X X X    
Kapinos et al. [54] 2014 US 7 1935 W/M 4 0.79b (3.3)   X X     X
  1. US = United Stated, UK = United Kingdom, W = Women, M = Men, WG = Weight Gain
  2. aStudies also had a time point at 12 months but not included in analyses
  3. bStandard Deviation/Standard Error presented in article
  4. cStandard Deviation/Standard Error obtained by contacting authors
  5. dNumber of significant digit depend on the precision presented in the original articles