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Table 2 ANOVA and ANCOVA results with sleep quality as the outcome

From: Self-reported sleep quality, weight status and depression in young adult twins and siblings

  N Sleep qualitya* Mean (SE) ANOVA p-value ANCOVA Model 1 p-value ANCOVA Model 2 p-value
Weight status    0.058 0.288 0.384
 Underweight 116 6.27 (0.28)    
 Healthy weight 984 5.58 (0.10)    
 Overweight 199 5.92 (0.21)    
 Obese 66 6.01 (0.37)    
Depressionb*    <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 1 (fewer) 427 3.92 (0.13)    
 2 416 5.26 (0.13)    
 3 321 6.39 (0.15)    
 4 (more) 352 7.69 (0.14)    
Anxietyc*    <0.001 0.368 0.204
 1 (fewer) 428 4.42 (0.14)    
 2 349 5.25 (0.15)    
 3 368 5.93 (0.15)    
 4 (more) 373 7.33 (0.15)    
General healthd*    <0.001 <0.001 <0.001
 1 (better) 298 4.34 (0.16)    
 2 622 5.36 (0.11)    
 3 419 6.23 (0.14)    
 4 136 7.41 (0.24)    
 5 (poorer) 39 9.01 (0.45)    
  1. Model 1 included weight status, depression, anxiety and general health; Model 2 included weight status, depression, anxiety and general health, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, education and alcohol. aSleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, with higher scores indicating poorer sleep quality.[38] bDepression symptoms were measured using the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire.[26] cAnxiety symptoms were measured using the Revised Symptoms of Anxiety Scale.[7] dGeneral health was measured using a single, self-report item. *Higher scores for sleep quality, depression, anxiety and general health indicate poorer sleep quality, greater number of depression symptoms, greater number of anxiety symptoms and poorer health, respectively