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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Estimating the proportion of metabolic health outcomes attributable to obesity: a cross-sectional exploration of body mass index and waist circumference combinations

  Total BMIN/WCN BMIN/WCO BMIO/WCN BMIO/WCO
  n = 10 659 n = 6 688 n = 1 594 n = 171 n = 2 206
Age (years) 48.2 (15.4) 46.1 (14.6) 56.2 (17.4) 42.1 (10.9) 51.6 (15.2)
Male sex, % 50.0 52.0 43.5 68.0 44.3
Education, %      
 Secondary school 37.0 33.7 44.2 35.1 44.7
 Trade, technician’s certificate 32.2 32.1 31.9 33.5 32.8
 Associate, undergraduate diploma, 11.7 12.3 10.6 11.0 10.5
 nursing or teaching qualification      
 Bachelor degree, post-graduate 19.1 21.9 13.4 20.4 11.9
Europid, % 87.5 86.3 92.1 84.5 89.4
BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 (4.9) 24.2 (2.7) 27.8 (1.9) 31.0 (0.8) 34.3 (4.2)
Waist circumference (cm) 90.0 (13.6) 83.6 (9.5) 98.4 (8.0) 94.4 (5.8) 107.5 (11.2)
TV viewing time, %      
 <2 h/day 6.7 7.6 4.0 4.5 5.4
 2- < 4 h/day 8.1 9.4 5.0 5.2 5.8
 ≥4 h/day 85.2 83.0 91.0 90.3 88.8
Alcohol consumption, ≤10 g/day (%) 62.1 59.4 64.5 63.6 70.5
Smoking status, %      
 Current smoker 16.4 17.0 16.5 21.2 13.4
 Ex-smoker 25.9 23.2 33.1 24.1 31.3
 Non-smoker 57.8 59.8 50.3 54.7 55.3
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 128.1 (18.3) 124.8 (16.6) 133.8 (21.4) 126.8 (12.1) 136.6 (19.5)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.8 (11.7) 69.4 (11.0) 71.9 (13.8) 72.9 (7.5) 75.2 (12.2)
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.5 (1.1) 5.4 (0.8) 5.7 (1.2) 5.6 (0.8) 6.0 (1.7)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.5 (1.1) 5.4 (1.0) 5.8 (1.2) 5.7 (0.8) 5.8 (1.2)
Hypertension, % 28.9 20.8 45.0 19.0 49.7
Diabetes, % 7.0 3.7 10.7 4.0 17.2
Dyslipidaemia, % 25.9 18.4 36.2 28.0 46.6
Cardiovascular disease, % 7.1 5.4 13.4 2.3 9.9
  1. Data presented as mean (standard deviation) unless otherwise specified
  2. Adiposity categories: BMIN/WCN: non-obese BMI and WC; BMIN/WCO: non-obese BMI, obese WC; BMIO/WCN: obese BMI, non-obese WC; BMIO/WCO: obese BMI and WC
  3. Hypertension defined as blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or on antihypertensive medication; diabetes defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or 2-hour plasma glucose ≥11.1 mmol/l, or on oral hypoglycaemic medication or insulin; dyslipidaemia defined as triglycerides ≥2.0 mmol/l or HDL cholesterol <1.0 mmol/l; CVD defined as previous angina, stroke and/or coronary artery disease