Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the study participants

From: Overweight and abdominal obesity as determinants of undiagnosed diabetes and pre-diabetes in Bangladesh

Variable (Unit) Total n = 1243 Urban Rural
Total Male Female Total Male Female
n = 518 n = 183 n = 335 n = 725 n = 178 547
Age (Year) Mean (SD) a 41.5 (8.2) 41.2 (9.9) 44.4 (10.1) 39.5 (9.3) 41.6 (6.7) 42.5 (7.0) 41.3 (6.6)
Age Group d,e        
20-39 Year (%) 42.9 47.1 36.6 52.8 39.9 36.0 41.1
40-59 Year (%) 54.6 47.1 53.6 43.6 60.0 64.0 58.7
60 Year or Above (%) 2.5 5.8 9.8 3.6 0.1 0 0.2
Male (%)   29.0 35.3    24.6   
Education Median (25th–75th) c,a 6 (0–10) 10 (8–14) 12 (10–15) 10 (8–12) 4 (0–6) 4 (0–7) 4 (0–5)
  Level of Education d,e        
  Illiterate (%) 28.7 7.6 3.3 9.9 43.7 43.8 43.7
Primary (%) 20.5 6.2 .5 9.3 30.6 27.0 31.8
Secondary (%) 30.5 40.7 28.0 47.6 23.3 25.8 22.5
Post secondary (%) 20.3 45.5 68.1 33.2 2.3 3.4 2.0
Household income (Takab ,000) Median (25th-75th) c,a 10 (5–15) 18 (10–25) 18 (10–28) 16 (10–25) 6 (4–10) 5 (4–8) 6 (4–10)
Income Group d        
Low: ≤6,000 Taka/mo (%) 38.4 5.8 6.0 5.7 61.7 68.0 59.6
Medium: 6,001–12,000/mo (%) 28.6 28.5 28.6 28.4 28.7 25.8 29.6
High: >12,000 (%) 33.0 65.7 65.4 65.9 9.7 6.2 10.8
Boby Mass Index (BMI) (kg/m2) Mean (SD) c,a 23.0 (4.5) 25.9 (4.2) 24.7 (3.4) 26.6 (4.5) 21.0 (3.5) 20.3 (3.0) 21.2 (3.7)
BMI Category d,e        
Underweight (≤18.49 kg/m2) (%) 50.9 38.2 50.8 31.3 60.0 60.7 59.8
Normal (18.50–24.99 kg/m2) (%) 16.9 3.3 3.3 3.3 26.6 32.0 24.9
Overwt/Obese (> = 25 kg/m2) (%) 32.2 58.5 45.9 65.4 13.4 7.3 15.4
Waist circumference (cm) Mean (SD) c,a 78.6 (11.3) 85.8 (10.1) 88.2 (7.9) 88.4 (10.9) 73.6 (9.1) 75.0 (9.3) 73.1 (9.0)
Abdominal Obesity d,e        
Normal (<90 cm M,<80 cm F) (%) 62.8 37.8 54.1 29.0 80.6 92.7 76.6
Anbdominally Obese (≥90 cm M,≥80 cm F) (%) 37.2 62.2 45.9 71.0 19.4 7.3 23.4
Waist-to-Hip Ratio d,e Normal (<0.90 M,<0.85 F) (%) 48.1 26.6 12.0 34.6 63.4 58.4 65.1
High (≥0.90 M, ≥0.85 F) (%) 51.9 73.4 88.0 65.4 36.6 41.6 34.9
Vegetable/Fruit Consumption 2–3Serving/day (%)d 79.2 70.6 68.6 71.6 80.5 84.8 79.1
4–5Serving/day (%)d 4.3 22.9 14.3 27.0 1.5 2.8 1.1
Level of Physical Activityd Low (<=150 min/week) (%) 68.1 97.5 97.8 97.3 47.0 36.0 50.6
High (>150 min/week) (%) 31.9 2.5 2.2 2.7 53.0 64.0 49.4
Glucose (mmol/L) Fasting Mean (SD)c 5.1 (1.3) 5.4 (1.7) 5.3 (1.3) 5.6 (1.9) 4.8 (0.9) 4.7 (1.0) 4.9 (0.9)
2 hr after glucose Mean (SD) c,a 7.2 (2.7) 7.9 (3.4) 7.5 (3.2) 8.1 (3.5) 6.7 (2.0) 6.2 (2.0) 6.8 (2.0)
Metabolic Statusc        
Diabetes (%) 6.6 12.2 13.1 11.6 2.6 2.2 2.7
Prediabetes (%) 16.6 21.2 19.1 22.4 13.2 9.0 14.6
Normal (%) 76.8 66.6 67.8 66.0 84.1 88.8 82.6
  1. aSignificant difference between male and female at <0.05 level
  2. bBangladesh Taka 76.00 = USD 1.00
  3. cSignificant difference between rural and urban residence at <0.05 level
  4. dSignificant association with area of residence (rural and urban) at <0.05 level
  5. eSignificant association with sex of the respondents at <0.05 level