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Table 2 Association Between Economic Status and Possible Mediators

From: Association between economic status and body mass index among adolescents: a community-based cross-sectional study in Japan

  Boys Girls
Non-Low Low p Non-Low Low p
n % n % n % n %
Family characteristics           
 Family structure           
  Both biological parents 926 (96.06) 38 (3.94) 0.219 910 (98.06) 18 (1.94) <0.001
  Single parent or stepfamily 193 (94.15) 12 (5.85) 185 (90.24) 20 (9.76)
 Family members’ smoking status (mother, father, or others)
  None 542 (95.93) 23 (4.07) 0.736 514 (97.53) 13 (2.47) 0.122
  Yes (≥1 person) 577 (95.53) 27 (4.47) 581 (95.87) 25 (4.13)
Child characteristics           
 Breakfast skipping           
  No (eat breakfast daily) 990 (95.93) 42 (4.07) 0.336 944 (98.03) 19 (1.97) <0.001
  Yes (skip breakfast ≥ 1 time per week) 129 (94.16) 8 (5.84) 151 (88.82) 19 (11.18)
 Convenience stores or fast-food outlets
   < 1 time per week 916 (95.52) 43 (4.48) 0.455 929 (96.67) 32 (3.33) 0.915
   ≥ 1 time per week 203 (96.67) 7 (3.33) 166 (96.51) 6 (3.49)
 Club activities at school
  Physical 819 (96.35) 31 (3.65) 0.065 562 (97.74) 13 (2.26) 0.092
  Non-physical 70 (90.91) 7 (9.09) 309 (95.96) 13 (4.04)
  No participation 230 (95.04) 12 (4.96) 224 (94.92) 12 (5.08)
 Activities outside of school
  Yes 378 (94.97) 20 (5.03) 0.364 456 (97.85) 10 (2.15) 0.059
  No 741 (96.11) 30 (3.89) 639 (95.80) 28 (4.20)
 Sleeping patterns
   ≥ 6 h 30 min (Q2-Q5) 915 (95.81) 40 (4.19) 0.752 805 (97.46) 21 (2.54) 0.013
   < 6 h 30 min (Q1) 204 (95.33) 10 (4.67) 290 (94.46) 17 (5.54)
 Self-rated health status
  Good (excellent, good, fair) 1041 (96.03) 43 (3.97) 0.061 1008 (97.58) 25 (2.42) <0.001
  Not good (somewhat poor or poor) 78 (91.76) 7 (8.24) 87 (87.00) 13 (13.00)
 Smoking status
  No 1079 (95.83) 47 (4.17) 0.373 1072 (96.84) 35 (3.16) 0.019
  Yes 40 (93.02) 3 (6.98) 23 (88.46) 3 (11.54)
  1. Note. Chi square test