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Table 3 Associations between potential confounders and overweight/obesity in univariate models

From: Overweight and obesity in children aged 3–13 years in urban Cameroon: a cross-sectional study of prevalence and association with socio-economic status

Potential confounders Categories OR (95% CI) P value*
Gender (vs. male) Female 1.16 (83.9, 1.62) 0.4
Age (per year) - 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) 0.01
Birthweight (per 100 g) - 1.01 (1.002, 1.009) 0.001
Type of feeding from 0 to 6 months (vs. breast milk) Formula 1.92 (0.79, 4.68) 0.2
Breast milk and formula 1.15 (0.81, 1.63) 0.4
Number of meals per day (vs. 1–2) 3 1.22 (0.72, 2.10) 0.06
4+ 1.76 (0.94, 3.30)  
Fruit consumption (vs. 4–7 times/week) 1-3 times/week 0.54 (0.35, 0.85) 0.1
<1/week 0.63 (0.40, 0.99)  
Sweet drink consumption (vs. never/rarely) Often 1.42 (0.997, 2.02) 0.01
Everyday 1.98 (1.12, 3.51)  
Leisure time sport (vs. yes) No 0.97 (0.69, 1.35) 0.8
Passive travel to school (vs. walk/cycle) Motorcycle/taxi/car/public transport 1.95 (1.28, 2.95) 0.002
School sport (vs. yes) No 2.08 (1.24, 3.48) 0.01
Time watching screen (vs. <1 h/day) 1-2 h/day 1.16 (0.77, 1.74) 0.2
2+ hour/day 1.35 (0.87, 2.11)  
Time child wakes up (vs. between 6 am and 7 am) Between 3 am and 5.55 am 0.82 (0.57, 1.18) 0.3
Daytime sleep (vs. yes) No 0.94 (0.66, 1.35) 0.7
Pocket money (vs. yes) No 1.02 (0.72, 1.44) 0.9
Maternal age (per year) - 1.01 (0.99, 1.04) 0.3
Maternal BMI (per kg/m2) - 1.06 (1.02, 1.09) 0.002
Maternal education level (vs. university) High school 1.09 (0.67, 1.78) 0.1
Secondary school 0.82 (0.50, 1.36)  
None/Primary school 0.68 (0.37, 1.25)  
Maternal alcohol consumption (vs. yes) No 1.50 (0.92, 2.43) 0.1
Paternal education level (vs. university) High school Secondary 0.78 (0.52, 1.18) 0.08
school 0.59 (0.36, 0.97)  
None/Primary school 0.75 (0.41, 1.37)  
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval; *p-value for trend if ordinal variable has more than two categories