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Table 2 Dietary intake variables [mean ± /sd or n (%)] at baseline (6–9 week postpartum) by 1-year postpartum weight retention categories (≥ 5 kg or <5 kg) among women with recent GDM (N = 888)a,b

From: Dietary variables associated with substantial postpartum weight retention at 1-year among women with GDM pregnancy

Dietary Intake from PrimeScreen At 6–9 weeks postpartum (baseline) Total < 5 kg 1 yr ≥ 5 kg 1 yr P-value
wt retention wt retention
N = 888 (N = 690) (N = 198)
Nutrients
 Energy intake (kcal/d) 834.2 ± 340.9 832.8 ± 343.2 839.1 ± 333.7 0.82
 Animal Fat (% of kcal) 25.2 ± 8.2 25.2 ± 8.3 25.3 ± 7.9 0.84
 Saturated Fat (% of kcal) 26.8 ± 8.6 26.8 ± 8.7 27.1 ± 8.3 0.62
 Fiber (g/day) 8.4 ± 3.9 8.4 ± 3.9 8.2 ± 3.6 0.60
PrimeScreen Food Groups
 Dark Leafy Green Vegetables     0.41
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 267 (30.1) 212 (30.7) 55 (27.8)
  2–4 serv/wk 434 (48.9) 327 (47.4) 107 (54.0)
  1 serv/wk 119 (13.4) 94 (13.6) 25 (12.6)
  None 65 (7.3) 55 (8.0) 10 (5.1)
 Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage     0.65
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 80 (9.0) 61 (8.8) 19 (9.6)
  2–4 serv/wk 346 (39.0) 278 (40.3) 68 (34.3)
  1 serv/wk 242 (27.3) 183 (26.5) 59 (29.8)
  None 217 (24.4) 166 (24.1) 51 (25.8)
 Carrots     0.93
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 88 (9.9) 70 (10.1) 18 (9.1)
  2–4 serv/wk 322 (36.3) 250 (36.2) 72 (36.4)
  1 serv/wk 239 (26.9) 183 (26.5) 56 (28.3)
  None 233 (26.2) 183 (26.5) 50 (25.3)
 Other Vegetables (peas, corn, green beans)     0.59
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 333 (37.5) 264 (38.3) 69 (34.9)
  2–4 serv/wk 416 (46.9) 316 (45.8) 100 (50.5)
  1 serv/wk 99 (11.2) 76 (11.0) 23 (11.6)
  None 31 (3.5) 27 (3.9) 4 (2.0)
 Citrus fruits (including juice)     0.30
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 174 (19.6) 127 (18.4) 47 (23.7)
  2–4 serv/wk 297 (33.5) 227 (32.9) 70 (35.4)
  1 serv/wk 162 (18.2) 133 (19.3) 29 (14.7)
  None 250 (28.2) 199 (28.8) 51 (25.8)
Fruits (apples, pears, bananas, grapes)     0.44
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 371 (41.8) 286 (32.2) 85 (42.9)
  2–4 serv/wk 371 (41.8) 291 (32.8) 80 (40.4)
  1 serv/wk 89 (10.0) 65 (7.3) 24 (12.1)
  None 57 (6.4) 48 (5.4) 9 (4.6)
 Sweet grains (cookies, muffins, cakes)     0.63
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 108 (12.2) 85 (12.3) 23 (11.6)
  2–4 serv/wk 330 (37.2) 263 (38.1) 67 (33.8)
  1 serv/wk 255 (28.7) 192 (27.8) 63 (31.8)
  None 193 (21.7) 149 (21.6) 44 (22.2)
 Whole grains (whole grain bread, brown rice)     0.52
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 423 (47.6) 322 (46.7) 101 (51.0)
  2–4 serv/wk 290 (32.7) 233 (33.8) 57 (28.8)
  1 serv/wk 97 (10.9) 73 (10.6) 24 (12.1)
  None 78 (8.8) 62 (9.0) 16 (8.1)
 Pasta, rice, noodles     0.60
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 256 (28.8) 203 (29.4) 53 (26.8)
  2–4 serv/wk 406 (45.7) 306 (44.4) 100 (50.5)
  1 serv/wk 151 (17.0) 122 (17.7) 29 (14.7)
  None 72 (8.1) 57 (8.3) 15 (7.6)
 Whole milk dairy foods (whole milk, hard cheese, butter, ice cream)     0.25
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 349 (39.3) 259 (37.5) 90 (45.5)
  2–4 serv/wk 309 (34.8) 243 (35.2) 66 (33.3)
  1 serv/wk 103 (11.6) 82 (11.9) 21 (10.6)
  None 126 (14.2) 105 (15.2) 21 (10.6)
 Whole eggs     0.031
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 178 (20.1) 148 (21.5) 30 (15.2)
  2–4 serv/wk 355 (40.0) 284 (41.2) 71 (35.9)
  1 serv/wk 196 (22.1) 141 (20.4) 55 (27.8)
  None 156 (17.6) 114 (16.5) 42 (21.2)
 Margarine     0.75
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 55 (6.2) 40 (5.8) 15 (7.6)
  2–4 serv/wk 96 (10.8) 74 (10.7) 22 (11.1)
  1 serv/wk 125 (14.1) 94 (13.6) 31 (15.7)
  None 609 (68.6) 480 (69.6) 129 (65.2)
 Low-fat milk products (low-fat/skim milk, yogurt, cottage cheese)     0.81
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 381 (42.9) 299 (43.3) 82 (41.4)
  2–4 serv/wk 233 (26.2) 185 (26.8) 48 (24.2)
  1 serv/wk 92 (10.4) 70 (10.1) 22 (11.1)
  None 178 (20.1) 133 (19.3) 45 (22.7)
 Fish/Seafood (not fried, but broiled, baked)     0.71
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 35 (3.9) 30 (4.4) 5 (2.5)
  2–4 serv/wk 204 (23.0) 158 (22.9) 46 (23.2)
  1 serv/wk 263 (29.6) 204 (29.6) 59 (29.8)
  None 386 (43.5) 298 (43.2) 88 (44.4)
 Processed meats (sausages, salami, bologna, hot dogs, bacon)     0.027
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 47 (5.3) 28 (4.1) 19 (9.6)
  2–4 serv/wk 248 (27.9) 200 (29.0) 48 (24.2)
  1 serv/wk 246 (27.7) 189 (27.4) 57 (28.8)
  None 345 (38.9) 27 (39.3) 74 (37.4)
 Beef, pork, or lamb     0.85
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 175 (19.7) 135 (19.6) 40 (20.2)
  2–4 serv/wk 397 (44.7) 309 (44.8) 88 (44.4)
  1 serv/wk 150 (16.9) 114 (16.5) 36 (18.2)
  None 163 (18.4) 129 (18.7) 34 (17.2)
 Fried foods (fried chicken, fish, seafood, French fries, onion rings)     <.001
   ≥ 5 serv/wk 32 (3.6) 18 (2.6) 14 (7.1)
  2–4 serv/wk 208 (23.4) 147 (21.3) 61 (30.8)
  1 serv/wk 353 (39.8) 281 (40.7) 72 (36.4)
  None 295 (33.2) 244 (35.4) 51 (25.8)
Dietary Variables obtained from Caffeine Screener at Baseline
 Cola Soda     <0.001
   ≥ 2 serv/wk 93 (13.5) 49 (24.8) 142 (16.0)  
  1 or less serv/wk 189 (27.4) 56 (28.3) 245 (27.6)
  None 408 (59.1) 93 (47.0) 501 (56.4)
 Diet Cola Soda     0.37
   ≥ 2 serv/wk 96 (13.9) 34 (17.2) 130 (14.6)  
  1 or less serv/wk 102 (14.8) 27 (13.6) 129 (14.5)
  None 488 (70.7) 134 (67.7) 622 (70.1)
Physical Activity (PA) Score
 Total PA, met hr./wk 46.1 ± 21.1 46.0 ± 21.1 46.4 ± 21.1 0.80
 Moderate to vigorous PA, met hr./wk 24.7 ± 15.4 24.6 ± 15.4 25.0 ± 15.4 0.72
  1. aData are n (%), or mean ± SD
  2. bANOVA (for continuous dependent variables) and chi-square (for categorical dependent variables) were run to assess differences in food/beverage variables between weight retention categories. Met hr./wk. = metabolic equivalent hour per week