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Table 1 Characteristics of the US adult population (≥20 y)

From: Obesity moderates the complex relationships between inflammation, oxidative stress, sleep quality and depressive symptoms

Characteristics No Depressive Symptoms (n = 8888) Depressive Symptoms (n = 245) P value
Age (Mean (95% CI)) 46.9 (46.1, 47.8) 46.6 (45.1, 48.1) NS
Age categories (% (95% CI))
 ≥ 20 to < 40 y 36.7 (34.8, 38.7) 31.1 (23, 39.2) < 0.05
 ≥ 40 to < 65 y 46.0 (44.3, 47.7) 61.8 (52.1, 71.5)
 ≥ 65 y 17.3 (15.5, 19.0) 7.1 (4.0, 10.2)
Sex
 Men 49.6 (48.6, 50.6) 31.7 (25.2, 38.1) < 0.05
 Women 50.4 (49.4, 51.4) 68.3 (61.9, 74.8)
Ethnicity
 Non-Hispanic White 72.1 (67.6, 76.6) 65.0 (55.9, 74.2) < 0.05
 Non-Hispanic Black 10.8 (8.1, 13.5) 17.3 (10.5, 24.2)
 Mexican American 7.9 (6.1, 9.8) 7.3 (3.7, 10.9)
 Others 9.2 (7.3, 11) 10.3 (5.1, 15.5)
Education
 < High school 18.2 (16, 20.4) 29.5 (23.4, 35.5) < 0.05
 High school 25.0 (23.3, 26.7) 31.0 (21.6, 40.4)
 College 56.8 (53.4, 60.1) 39.5 (30.6, 48.4)
Income
 < $20,000 15.5 (13.8, 17.3) 35.5 (30.5, 40.6) < 0.05
 $20,000-44,999 29.8 (27.6, 32.0) 38.8 (30.7, 47.0)
 ≥ $45,000 54.7 (51.4, 57.9) 25.6 (18.4, 32.9)
Smoking
 None 51.6 (49.4, 53.7) 38.4 (28.9, 47.9) < 0.05
 Current 23.2 (21.4, 25) 45.1 (35.9, 54.2)
 Past 25.2 (23.8, 26.6) 16.5 (11.2, 21.9)
Alcohol Intake
 < 3 drinks per day 62.3 (60, 64.6) 56.1 (44.9, 67.3) NS
 ≥ 3 drinks per day 37.7 (35.4, 40) 43.9 (32.7, 55.1)
Recreational Physical Activity
 None reported 66.2 (62.6, 69.9) 84.4 (77.8, 91) < 0.05
 < 500 MET-min/week 11.4 (10.1, 12.7) 6.1 (2, 10.2)
 ≥ 500 MET-min/week 22.3 (19.7, 24.9) 9.5 (5.4, 13.6)
BMI categories (kg/m2)
 < 18.5 1.6 (1.2, 2.0) 1.1 (0.0, 2.2) NS
 ≥ 18.5 - < 25 30.7 (29.0, 32.4) 24.3 (17.5, 31.2)
 ≥ 25 - < 30 33.7 (32.5, 35.0) 31.5 (25.0, 38.0)
 ≥ 30 - < 35 19.4 (18.5, 20.4) 21.9 (14.5, 29.3)
 ≥ 35 14.5 (13.2, 15.9) 21.1 (14.2, 28.1)
  1. Mean (95% CI) for continuous variables and % (95% CI) for categorical variables. Responses from the PHQ-9 were summed and categorized as None (0–4), Minimal (5–9), Mild (10–14), Moderate (15–19), and Severe (20–27). Moderate-to-Severe was categorized as Depressive Symptoms. Sleep Quality are sum of responses for 6 sleep habit questions from the Sleep Disorder Questionnaire. p < 0.05, two-sided; t-test or Chi-square, as appropriate. NS not significant. Sum of weights = 190,972,201