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Table 2 Results of bivariate analysis by rate of infancy weight gain

From: Associations between gestational weight gain and rate of infancy weight gain in Hawai‘i and Puerto Rico WIC participants

Variable Rate of infancy weight gain, n(%) p-value
Rapid
19 (23.2)
On-track
42 (51.2)
Slow
21 (25.6)
Site 0.615
 Hawai‘i 7 (18.9) 21 (56.8) 9 (24.3)  
 Puerto Rico 12 (26.7) 21 (46.7) 12 (26.7)  
Gestational weight gain 0.108
 Recommended 12 (36.4) 16 (48.5) 5 (15.2)  
 Inadequate 4 (20.0) 9 (45.0) 7 (35.0)  
 Excessive 3 (10.3) 17 (58.6) 9 (31.0)  
Pregravid BMI 0.067
 Underweight 2 (28.6) 2 (28.6) 3 (42.9)  
 Normal 8 (21.6) 21 (56.8) 8 (21.6)  
 Overweight 6 (31.6) 12 (63.2) 1 (5.3)  
 Obese 3 (15.8) 7 (36.8) 9 (47.4)  
Racea/ethnicity
 Hispanic 12 (23.5) 26 (51.0) 13 (25.5) 0.995
 Native Hawaiian 2 (28.6) 2 (28.6) 3 (42.9) 0.441
 Other Pacific Islander 3 (50.0) 3 (50.0) 0 (0) 0.161
 Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander 4 (33.3) 5 (41.7) 3 (25.0) 0.654
 Asian 2 (14.3) 8 (57.1) 4 (28.6) 0.741
 American Indian or Alaska Native 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 1 (33.3) 0.796
 Black or African American 1 (9.1) 7 (63.6) 3 (27.3) 0.580
 White 11 (27.5) 20 (50.0) 9 (22.5) 0.622
Parity 0.142
 1 12 (37.5) 15 (46.9) 5 (15.6)  
 2 5 (14.7) 19 (55.9) 10 (29.4)  
 3 or 4 2 (12.5) 8 (50.0) 6 (37.5)  
Use of prenatal vitamins
 Yes 19 (23.2) 42 (51.2) 21 (25.6)  
Pregnancy complications 0.693
 No 11 (21.6) 28 (54.9) 12 (23.5)  
 Yes 8 (25.8) 14 (45.2) 9 (29.0)  
Took vitamins while breastfeeding 0.921
 No 7 (20.6) 17 (50.0) 10 (29.4)  
 Yes 11 (26.2) 21 (50.0) 10 (23.8)  
 (No response given) 1 (16.7) 4 (66.7) 1 (16.7)  
Education 0.274
 Less than college 9 (29.0) 11 (35.5) 11 (35.5)  
 Some college 4 (18.2) 13 (59.1) 5 (22.7)  
 College degree or higher 6 (20.7) 18 (62.1) 5 (17.2)  
Maternal age (years) 0.047
 18–24 11 (40.7) 11 (40.7) 5 (18.5)  
 25–31 5 (12.8) 20 (51.3) 14 (35.9)  
 32–39 3 (18.8) 11 (68.8) 2 (12.5)  
Infant gender 0.257
 Male 10 (25.0) 23 (57.5) 7 (17.5)  
 Female 9 (21.4) 19 (45.2) 14 (33.3)  
Up-to-date with vaccinations 0.061
 No 6 (35.3) 10 (58.8) 1 (5.9)  
 Yes 13 (20.0) 32 (49.2) 20 (30.8)  
  1. Note: Row percentages; p-value was obtained from chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test for categorical variable and analysis of variance for continuous variable
  2. aIncludes all races for mixed participants. Each race/ethnicity variable was defined as Yes if a participant marked the race/ethnicity on the questionnaire