Ministry of Health of Mongolia, World Health Organization. Mongolian STEPS survey on the prevalence of noncommunicable disease risk factors 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2007.
Ministry of Health of Mongolia, World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. Mongolian STEPS survey on the prevalence of noncommunicable disease and injury risk factors 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
Ministry of Health of Mongolia, World Health Organization. Mongolian STEPS survey on the prevalence of noncommunicable disease and injury risk factors 2013. Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: World Health Organization; 2015.
Chimeddamba O, Gearon E, Stevenson C, Liviya Ng W, Baasai B, Peeters A. Trends in adult overweight and obesity prevalence in Mongolia, 2005-2013. Obesity. 2016;24(10):2194–201.
Kodama S, Horikawa C, Fujihara K, Heianza Y, Hirasawa R, Yachi Y, Sugawara A, Tanaka S, Shimano H, Iida KT, et al. Comparisons of the strength of associations with future type 2 diabetes risk among anthropometric obesity indicators, including waist-to-height ratio: a meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;176(11):959–69.
Carmienke S, Freitag MH, Pischon T, Schlattmann P, Fankhaenel T, Goebel H, Gensichen J. General and abdominal obesity parameters and their combination in relation to mortality: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2013;67(6):573–85.
Wang Y, Jacobs E, Patel A, Rodríguez C, McCullough M, Thun M, Calle E. A prospective study of waist circumference and body mass index in relation to colorectal cancer incidence. Cancer Causes Control. 2008;19(7):783–92.
Zeller M, Steg PG, Ravisy J, Lorgis L, Laurent Y, Sicard P, Janin-Manificat L, Beer J-C, Makki H, Lagrost A-C, et al. Relation between body mass index, waist circumference, and death after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2008;118(5):482–90.
The Decoda Study G, Nyamdorj R. BMI compared with central obesity indicators in relation to diabetes and hypertension in asians. Obesity. 2008;16(7):1622–35.
Walls HL, Stevenson CE, Mannan HR, Abdullah A, Reid CM, McNeil JJ, Peeters A. Comparing trends in BMI and waist circumference. Obesity (Silver Spring Md). 2011;19(1):216–9.
Li C, Ford ES, McGuire LC, Mokdad AH. Increasing trends in waist circumference and abdominal obesity among US adults. Obesity (Silver Spring Md). 2007;15(1):216–24.
Freedman DS, Ford ES. Are the recent secular increases in the waist circumference of adults independent of changes in BMI? Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(3):425–31.
Gearon E, Tanamas SK, Loh V, Stevenson C, Peeters A. The implications of differential trends in weight and waist circumference on population level obesity monitoring. Obes Rev. 2016;17(S2):91–151.
Albrecht SS, Gordon-Larsen P, Stern D, Popkin BM. Is waist circumference per body mass index rising differentially across the United States, England, China and Mexico? Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015;69(12):1306–12.
Stern D, Smith LP, Zhang B, Gordon-Larsen P, Popkin BM. Changes in waist circumference relative to body mass index in Chinese adults, 1993-2009. Int J Obes. 2014;38(12):1503–10.
Elobeid MA, Desmond RA, Thomas O, Keith SW, Allison DB. Waist circumference values are increasing beyond those expected from BMI increases. Obesity (Silver Spring Md). 2007;15(10):2380–3.
Lahti-Koski M, Harald K, Mannisto S, Laatikainen T, Jousilahti P. Fifteen-year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Finnish adults. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007;14(3):398–404.
Ko GT, Tang JS, Chan JCN. Worsening trend of central obesity despite stable or declining body mass index in Hong Kong Chinese between 1996 and 2005. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(5):549–52.
Surveillance Manual WHOSTEPS. The WHO Stepwise Approach to Chronic Disease Risk Factor Surveillance. 2005. http://www.who.int/chp/steps/en. Accessed 12 Jan 2016.
World Health Organization. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. In: Report of a WHO Consultation on Obesity. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997.
Lean ME, Han TS, Morrison CE. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ. 1995;311(6998):158–61.
WHO expert consultation. Appropriate body-mass index for Asian populations and its implications for policy and intervention strategies. Lancet. 2004;363(9403):157–63.
World Health Organization. Waist circumference and waist–hip ratio: report of a WHO expert consultation, Geneva, 8–11 December 2008. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2011.
Naing NN. Easy Way to Learn Standardization : Direct and Indirect Methods. Malays J Med Sci. 2000;7(1):10–5.
Deurenberg P, Deurenberg-Yap M, Guricci S. Asians are different from Caucasians and from each other in their body mass index/body fat per cent relationship. Obes Rev. 2002;3(3):141–6.
Du T, Sun X, Yin P, Huo R, Ni C, Yu X. Increasing trends in central obesity among Chinese adults with normal body mass index, 1993–2009. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):1–8.
Tanamas SK, Shaw JE, Backholer K, Magliano DJ, Peeters A. Twelve-year weight change, waist circumference change and incident obesity: the Australian diabetes, obesity and lifestyle study. Obesity (Silver Spring Md). 2014;22(6):1538–45.
Xi B, Liang Y, He T, Reilly KH, Hu Y, Wang Q, Yan Y, Mi J. Secular trends in the prevalence of general and abdominal obesity among Chinese adults, 1993–2009. Obes Rev. 2012;13(3):287–96.
Huxley R, Mendis S, Zheleznyakov E, Reddy S, Chan J. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk- a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;64(1):16–22.
Vazquez G, Duval S, Jacobs Jr DR, Silventoinen K. Comparison of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist/hip ratio in predicting incident diabetes: a meta-analysis. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29:115–28.
Balkau B, Deanfield JE, Després J-P, Bassand J-P, Fox KAA, Smith SC, Barter P, Tan C-E, Van Gaal L, Wittchen H-U, et al. International Day for the Evaluation of Abdominal Obesity (IDEA): A Study of Waist Circumference, Cardiovascular Disease, and Diabetes Mellitus in 168 000 Primary Care Patients in 63 Countries. Circulation. 2007;116(17):1942–51.
Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Waist circumference and not body mass index explains obesity-related health risk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(3):379–84.
Suk S-H, Sacco RL, Boden-Albala B, Cheun JF, Pittman JG, Elkind MS, Paik MC. Abdominal Obesity and Risk of Ischemic Stroke: The Northern Manhattan Stroke Study. Stroke. 2003;34(7):1586–92.
Cheung BM, Wat NM, Tam S, Thomas GN, Leung GM, Cheng CH, Woo J, Janus ED, Lau CP, Lam TH, et al. Components of the metabolic syndrome predictive of its development: a 6-year longitudinal study in Hong Kong Chinese. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2008;68(5):730–7.
Keevil VL, Luben R, Dalzell N, Hayat S, Sayer AA, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT. Cross-sectional associations between different measures of obesity and muscle strength in men and women in a British cohort study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015;19(1):3–11.
Tanamas SK, Ng WL, Backholer K, Hodge A, Zimmet PZ, Peeters A. Quantifying the proportion of deaths due to body mass index- and waist circumference-defined obesity. Obesity. 2016;24(3):735–42.