International Diabetes Federation. IDF Diabetes Atlas. 2017.
Spanakis EK, Golden SH. Race/ethnic difference in diabetes and diabetic complications. Curr Diab Rep. 2013;13(6):814–23.
Benjamin EJ, Blaha MJ, Chiuve SE, Cushman M, Das SR, Deo R, et al. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics-2017 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(10):e146–603.
Khan UI, Wang D, Sowers MR, Mancuso P, Everson-Rose SA, Scherer PE, et al. Race-ethnic differences in adipokine levels: the study of Women's health across the nation (SWAN). Metabolism. 2012;61(9):1261–9.
Goedecke JH, Levitt NS, Evans J, Ellman N, Hume DJ, Kotze L, et al. The role of adipose tissue in insulin resistance in women of African ancestry. J Obes. 2013;2013:952916.
Rush EC, Goedecke JH, Jennings C, Micklesfield L, Dugas L, Lambert EV, et al. BMI, fat and muscle differences in urban women of five ethnicities from two countries. Int J Obes. 2007;31(8):1232–9.
Schutte AE, Olckers A. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women. Horm Metab Res. 2007;39(9):651–7.
Zeno SA, Deuster PA, Davis JL, Kim-Dorner SJ, Remaley AT, Poth M. Diagnostic criteria for metabolic syndrome: caucasians versus African-Americans. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2010;8(2):149–56.
Ellman N, Keswell D, Collins M, Tootla M, Goedecke JH. Ethnic differences in the association between lipid metabolism genes and lipid levels in black and white South African women. Atherosclerosis. 2015;240(2):311–7.
Goedecke JH, Dave JA, Faulenbach MV, Utzschneider KM, Lambert EV, West S, et al. Insulin response in relation to insulin sensitivity: an appropriate beta-cell response in black South African women. Diabetes Care. 2009;32(5):860–5.
Wang L, Sacks FM, Furtado JD, Ricks M, Courville AB, Sumner AE. Racial differences between African-American and white women in insulin resistance and visceral adiposity are associated with differences in apoCIII containing apoAI and apoB lipoproteins. Nutr. Metab. 2014;11(1):56.
Morimoto Y, Conroy SM, Ollberding NJ, Kim Y, Lim U, Cooney RV, et al. Ethnic differences in serum adipokine and C-reactive protein levels: the multiethnic cohort. Int J Obes. 2014;38(11):1416–22.
Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Pennells L, Wood AM, White IR, et al. C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular disease prediction. N Engl J Med. 2012;367(14):1310–20.
Zand H, Morshedzadeh N, Naghashian F. Signaling pathways linking inflammation to insulin resistance. Diabetes & metabolic syndrome. 2017;11(Suppl 1):S307-s9.
Mokhaneli MC, Fourie CM, Botha S, Mels CM. The association of oxidative stress with arterial compliance and vascular resistance in a bi-ethnic population: the SABPA study. Free Radic Res. 2016;50(8):920–8.
Fisher G, Hyatt TC, Hunter GR, Oster RA, Desmond RA, Gower BA. Markers of inflammation and fat distribution following weight loss in African-American and white women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2012;20(4):715–20.
Goedecke JH, Keswell D, Weinreich C, Fan J, Hauksson J, Victor H, et al. Ethnic differences in hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity and their associated determinants in obese black and white South African women. Diabetologia. 2015;58(11):2647–52.
Schneider M, Bradshaw D, Steyn K, Norman R, Laubscher R. Poverty and non-communicable diseases in South Africa. Scand. J. Public Health. 2009;37(2):176–86.
Deverts DJ, Cohen S, Kalra P, Matthews KA. The prospective association of socioeconomic status with C-reactive protein levels in the CARDIA study. Brain Behav Immun. 2012;26(7):1128–35.
Koster A, Bosma H, Penninx BW, Newman AB, Harris TB, van Eijk JT, et al. Association of inflammatory markers with socioeconomic status. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(3):284–90.
Carlsson AC, Li X, Holzmann MJ, Wandell P, Gasevic D, Sundquist J, et al. Neighbourhood socioeconomic status and coronary heart disease in individuals between 40 and 50 years. Heart. 2016;102(10):775–82.
Walsemann KM, Goosby BJ, Farr D. Life course SES and cardiovascular risk: heterogeneity across race/ethnicity and gender. Soc. Sci. Med. (1982). 2016;152:147–55.
Evans J, Micklesfield L, Jennings C, Levitt NS, Lambert EV, Olsson T, et al. Diagnostic ability of obesity measures to identify metabolic risk factors in South African women. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011;9(5):353–60.
Goedecke JH, Levitt NS, Lambert EV, Utzschneider KM, Faulenbach MV, Dave JA, et al. Differential effects of abdominal adipose tissue distribution on insulin sensitivity in black and white South African women. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2009;17(8):1506–12.
Bull FC, Maslin TS, Armstrong T. Global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ): nine country reliability and validity study. J Phys Act Health. 2009;6(6):790–804.
Kengne AP, Erasmus RT, Levitt NS, Matsha TE. Alternative indices of glucose homeostasis as biochemical diagnostic tests for abnormal glucose tolerance in an African setting. Prim Care Diabetes. 2017;11(2):119–31.
Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem. 1972;18(6):499–502.
Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28(7):412–9.
Donath MY. Targeting inflammation in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: time to start. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2014;13(6):465–76.
Ridker PM, Buring JE, Cook NR, Rifai N. C-reactive protein, the metabolic syndrome, and risk of incident cardiovascular events: an 8-year follow-up of 14 719 initially healthy American women. Circulation. 2003;107(3):391–7.
Nettleton JA, Steffen LM, Mayer-Davis EJ, Jenny NS, Jiang R, Herrington DM, et al. Dietary patterns are associated with biochemical markers of inflammation and endothelial activation in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Am J Clin Nutr. 2006;83(6):1369–79.
Mchiza ZJ, Steyn NP, Hill J, Kruger A, Schonfeldt H, Nel J, et al. A review of dietary surveys in the adult South African population from 2000 to 2015. Nutrients. 2015;7(9):8227–50.
Veilleux A, Caron-Jobin M, Noel S, Laberge PY, Tchernof A. Visceral adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with dyslipidemia independent of body composition and fat distribution in women. Diabetes. 2011;60(5):1504–11.
Lee MJ, Wu Y, Fried SK. Adipose tissue heterogeneity: implication of depot differences in adipose tissue for obesity complications. Mol Asp Med. 2013;34(1):1–11.
Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos CE, Chrysohoou CA, Skoumas J, Toutouza M, Belegrinos D, et al. The association between educational status and risk factors related to cardiovascular disease in healthy individuals: the ATTICA study. Ann Epidemiol. 2004;14(3):188–94.
Albert MA, Glynn RJ, Ridker PM. Alcohol consumption and plasma concentration of C-reactive protein. Circulation. 2003;107(3):443–7.
Cooper D, Marks AS. Community-based distribution of contraception: a pilot project in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Urban Health Newsl. 1996;30:49–55.
Grossman RA, Asawasena W, Chalpati S, Taewtong D, Tovanabutra S. Effects of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in Thai women with liver fluke infestation: final results. Bull World Health Organ. 1979;57(5):829–37.
Cauci S, Di Santolo M, Culhane JF, Stel G, Gonano F, Guaschino S. Effects of third-generation oral contraceptives on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and homocysteine in young women. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;111(4):857–64.
Shisana O, Labadarios D, Rehle T, Simbayi L, Zuma K, Dhansay A, et al. The South African National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (SANHANES-1). 2013.
Jennings CL, Micklesfield LK, Lambert MI, Lambert EV, Collins M, Goedecke JH. Comparison of body fatness measurements by near-infrared reactance and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in normal-weight and obese black and white women. Br J Nutr. 2010;103(7):1065–9.
Otten J, Ahren B, Olsson T. Surrogate measures of insulin sensitivity vs the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp: a meta-analysis. Diabetologia. 2014;57(9):1781–8.